A Methodological Approach to Study Almond Oil Stability in Relation to α-Tocopherol Supplementation

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.312224   PDF   HTML     3,995 Downloads   6,385 Views   Citations

Abstract

The objectives of the present study were to identify a suitable parameter to assess the oil oxidation and to study the possibilities of delaying the oxidation of moderately oxidized unrefined almond oil by adding supplementary amounts of α-tocopherol. Three oil samples, with initial peroxide values of 13.3, 19.5 (moderately oxidized oils), and 28.9 (oxidized oil), were supplemented with 100, 250 and 500 ppm of α-tocopherol and subjected to the oxidation at 50°C for 9 days. The level of oxidation was determined by measuring peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Chemometric analysis indicated that, under the conditions of the present study, PV was the most suitable indicator of oil oxidation. The results have shown that the α-tocopherol could have an anti- oxidant or pro-oxidant effects, depending on its concentration and initial level of oil oxidation. Results also show that α-tocopherol addition at all the concentrations tested resulted in pro-oxidation of the moderately oxidized oils; hence additional supplementation with α-tocopherol could not be recommended to delay oxidation of unrefined almond oil.

Share and Cite:

L. Auezova, C. Saliba, E. Hajj-Moussa, L. Hosry, S. Yammine and R. Chahine, "A Methodological Approach to Study Almond Oil Stability in Relation to α-Tocopherol Supplementation," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 12, 2012, pp. 1710-1715. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.312224.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] E. Choe and D. B. Min, “Mechanisms and Factors for Edible Oil Oxidation,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2006, pp. 169-186. doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2006.00009.x
[2] E. N. Frankel, “Methods to Determine the Extent of Oxidation,” In: Lipid Oxidation, 2nd Edition, The Oily Press, England, 2005, pp. 99-127.
[3] A. De las Heras, A. Schoch, M. Gibis and A. Fischer, “Comparison of Methods for Determining Malondialdehyde in Dry Sausage by HPLC and the Classic TBA Test,” European Food Research and Technology, Vol. 217, No. 2, 2003, pp. 180-184. doi:10.1007/s00217-003-0728-x
[4] S. W. Huang, E. N. Frankel and J. B. German, “Effects of Individual Tocopherols and Tocopherol Mixtures on the Oxidative Stability of Corn Oil Triglycerides,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 43, No. 9, 1995, pp. 2345-2350. doi:10.1021/jf00057a006
[5] A. M. Lampi, L. Kataja, A. Kamal-Eldin and V. Piironen, “Antioxidant Activities of α- and γ-Tocopherols in the Oxidation of Rapeseed Oil Triglycerides,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 76, No. 6, 1999, pp. 749-755.
[6] U. Samotyja and M. Matecka, “Antioxidant Activity of Blackcurrant Seeds Extract and Rosemary Extracts in Soybean Oil,” European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, Vol. 112, No. 12, 2010, pp. 1331-1336. doi:10.1002/ejlt.201000042
[7] M. Laguerre, J. Lecomte and P. Villeneuve, “Evaluation of the Ability of Antioxidants to Counteract Lipid Oxidation: Existing Methods, New Trends and Challenges,” Progress in Lipid Research, Vol. 46, No. 5, 2007, pp. 244-282. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2007.05.002
[8] J. M. Tucker and D. M. Townsend, “Alpha-Tocopherol: Roles in Prevention and Therapy of Human Disease,” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 59, No. 9, 2005, pp. 380-387. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2005.06.005
[9] J.-M. Zingg, “Vitamin E: An Overview of Major Research Directions,” Review. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Vol. 28, No. 5-6, 2007, pp. 400-422. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2007.05.004
[10] S. Arranz, R. Cert, J. Pérez-Jiménez, A. Cert, F. SauraCalixto, et al, “Comparison between Free Radical Scavenging Capacity and Oxidative Stability of Nut Oils,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 110, No. 4, 2008, pp. 985-990. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.03.021
[11] M. Y. Jung and D. B. Min, “Effects of α-, γ-, and δ-To- copherols on Oxidative Stability of Soybean Oil,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 55, No. 5, 1990, pp. 1464-1465. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1990.tb03960.x
[12] N. V. Yanishlieva, A. Kamal-Eldin, E. M. Marinova and A. G. Toneva, “Kinetics of Antioxidant Action of α- and γ-Tocopherols in Sunflower and Soybean Triacylglycerols,” European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, Vol. 104, No. 5, 2002, pp. 262-270. doi:10.1002/1438-9312(200205)104:5<262::AID-EJLT262>3.0.CO;2-B
[13] Y. Yamamoto, “Role of Active Oxygen Species and Antioxidants in Photoaging,” Journal of Dermatological Science, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2001, pp. 1-4.
[14] F. Salvo, M. Alfa and G. Dugo, “Almond Oil Composition. Note III: Variation of Several Chemical and Physico-chemical Parameters during the Storage,” Italian Journal of Fat Matters, Vol. 63, 1986, pp. 37-40.
[15] E. Kulas and R. G. Ackman, “Different Tocopherols and the Relationship between Two Methods for Determination of Primary Oxidation Products in Fish Oil,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 49, No. 4, 2001, pp. 1724-1729. doi:10.1021/jf0011541
[16] M. Deiana, A. Rosa, C. Falqui Cao, P. M. Pirisi, G. Bandino and A. Dessi, “Novel Approach to Study Oxidative Stability of Extra Virgin Olive Oils: Importance of α- Tocopherol Concentration,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 15, 2002, pp. 4342-4346. doi:10.1021/jf020033t
[17] D. Krichene, A. Allalout, V. Mancebo-Campos, M. D. Salvador, M. Zarrouk and G. Fregapane, “Stability of Virgin Olive Oil and Behavior of Its Natural Antioxidants under Medium Temperature Accelerated Storage Conditions,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 121, No. 1, 2010, pp. 171-177. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.12.026
[18] S. Sigurgisladottir, C. C. Parrish, S. P. Lall and R. G. Ackman, “Effect of Feeding Natural Tocopherols and Astaxanthin on Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fillet Quality,” Food Research International, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1994, pp. 23-32. doi:10.1016/0963-9969(94)90174-0
[19] AOCS, “Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society,” 4th Edition, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1993.
[20] AOCS, “Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society,” 5th Edition, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1999.
[21] IUPAC, “Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives,” 7th Edition, Blackwell Scientific, London, 1987.
[22] R. S. Farag, A. Z. Badel and G. S. A. El Baroty, “Influence of Thym and Clove Essential Oils on Cottonseed Oil Oxidation,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 66, No. 6, 1989, pp. 800-804.
[23] E. A. Decker, K. Warner, M. P. Richards and F. Shahidi, “Measuring Antioxidant Effectiveness in Food,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 10, 2005, pp. 4303-4310. doi:10.1021/jf058012x
[24] C. Zajdenwerg, G. F. Branco, J. Alamed, E. A. Decker and I. A. Castro, “Correlation Between Sensory and Chemical Markers in the Evaluation of Brazil Nut Oxidative Shelf-Life,” European Food Research and Technology, Vol. 233, No. 1, 2011, pp. 109-116. doi:10.1007/s00217-011-1493-x
[25] S. Marmesat, A. Morales, J. Velasco, M. V. Ruiz-Méndez and M. C. Dobarganes, “Relationship between Changes in Peroxide Value and Conjugated Dienes during Oxidation of Sunflower Oils with Different Degree of Unsaturation,” Oils and Fats, Vol. 60, No. 2, 2009, pp. 155-160. doi:10.3989/gya.096908
[26] M. Chaijan, S. Benjakul, W. Visessanguan and C. Faustman, “Changes of Lipids in Sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) Muscle during Iced Storage,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 99, No. 1, 2006, pp. 83-91. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.022
[27] S. S. O. Hung and S. J. Slinger, “Studies of Chemical Methods for Assessing Oxidative Quality and Storage Stability of Feeding Oils,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 58, 1981, pp. 785-788.
[28] R. E. King, D. B. Min and S. C. Min, “Study of α-, γ-, and δ-Tocopherols in the Oxidative Stability of Lard,” Food Science and Biotechnology, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2011, pp. 817-822. doi:10.1007/s10068-011-0113-7
[29] J. C. Evans, D. R. Kodali and P. B. Addis, “Optimal Tocopherol Concentrations to Inhibit Soybean Oil Oxidation,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 79, No. 1, 2002, pp. 47-51.
[30] P. C. Zuta, B. K. Simpson, X. Zhao and L. Leclerc, “The Effect of α-Tocopherol on the Oxidation of Mackerel Oil,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 100, No. 2, 2007, pp. 800-807

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.