Comparison of Patient Survival after Resection for Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumors Compared to Other Neuroendocrine Tumors: A United States Population Study


Background: We hypothesized: 1) resected pulmonary typical carcinoid (TC) will show a favorable clinical pattern compared to other bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (BPNETs); and 2) Atypical carcinoid (AC) and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) patients will have similar outcomes. Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Result database was queried to compare demographics and tumor specific variables in patients undergoing resection for TC, AC, LCNEC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) from 2001 to 2006. Results: Similar to LCNEC, AC patients had greater incidence of histologic positive lymph nodes compared to TC (P < 0.001). Survival analysis showed a mean survival of 40.0 ± 1.9 months for SCLC, 46.2 ± 2.2 months for LCNEC, 58.3 ± 2.3 months for AC, and 70.2 ± 0.2 months for TC tumors. TC patients demonstrated favorable survival, and SCLC patients poorer survival, compared to AC and LNEC patients (P < 0.01). Conclusion: AC tumors are a BPNET histology that exhibits clinical behavior distinct from TC. AC tumors should be staged, and treated with stage appropriate therapeutic strategies similar to other non-small cell lung cancers.

Share and Cite:

J. Bhatt, J. Young and D. Cooke, "Comparison of Patient Survival after Resection for Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumors Compared to Other Neuroendocrine Tumors: A United States Population Study," Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 99-103. doi: 10.4236/ojts.2012.24020.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] National Cancer Institute, “Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment,” 2010.
[2] C. A. Moran, S. Suster, Coppola and M. R. Wick, “Neuroendocrine Carcinomas of the Lung: A Critical Analysis. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, Vol. 131, No. 2, 2009, pp. 206-221. doi:10.1309/AJCP9H1OTMUCSKQW
[3] B. I. Gustafsson, M. Kidd, A. Chan, M. V. Malfertheiner and I. M. Modlin, “Bronchopulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors,” Cancer, Vol. 113, No. 1, 2008, pp. 5-21. doi:10.1002/cncr.23542
[4] A. Iyoda, K. Hiroshima, M. Baba, Y. Saitoh, H. Ohwada and T. Fujisawa, “Pulmonary Large Cell Carcinomas with Neuroendocrine Features Are High-Grade Neuroendocrine Tumors,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Vol. 73, No. 4, 2002, pp. 1049-1054. doi:10.1016/S0003-4975(01)03616-5
[5] C. Cao, T. D. Yan, C. Kennedy, N. Hendel, P. G. Bannon and B. C. McCaughan, “Bronchopulmonary Carcinoid Tumors: Long-Term Outcomes after Resection,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Vol. 91, No. 2, 2011, pp. 339-343. doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.08.062
[6] M. García-Yuste, J. M. Matilla, A. Cueto, J. M. Paniagua, G. Ramos, M. A. Ca?izares and I. Muguruza, “Typical and Atypical Carcinoid Tumours: Analysis of the Experience of the Spanish Multi-Centric Study of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Lung,” European Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2007, pp. 192-197. doi:10.1016/j.ejcts.2006.11.031
[7] A. Bini, J. Brandolini, N. Cassanelli, F. Davoli, G. Dolci, F. Sellitri and F. Stella, “Typical and Atypical Pulmonary Carcinoids: Our Institutional Experience,” Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2008, pp. 415-418. doi:10.1510/icvts.2007.173328
[8] A. Naalsund, H. Rostad, E. H. Str?m, M. B. Lund and T. E. Strand, “Carcinoid Lung Tumors—Incidence, Treatment and Outcomes: A Population-Based Study,” European Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2011, pp. 565-569. doi:10.1016/j.ejcts.2010.08.036
[9] National Cancer Institute, U.S. National Institutes of Health, “Overview of SEER Program,” 2010.
[10] C. X. Zhong, F. Yao, H. Zhao, J. X. Shi and L. M. Fan, “Long-Term Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumors: 20 Years’ Experience with 131 Patients,” Chinese Medical Journal (English), Vol. 125, No. 17, 2012, pp. 3022-3026.
[11] A. G. Little, V. W. Rusch, J. A. Bonner, L. E. Gaspar, M. R. Green, W. R. Webb and A. K. Stewart, “Patterns of Surgical Care of Lung Cancer Patients,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Vol. 80, No. 6, 2005, pp. 2051-2056. doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2005.06.071
[12] L. Bertoletti, R. Elleuch, D. Kaczmarek, R. Jean-Fran?ois and J. M. Vergnon, “Bronchoscopic Cryotherapy Treatment of Isolated Endoluminal Typical Carcinoid Tumor,” Chest, Vol. 130, No. 5, 2006, pp. 1405-1411. doi:10.1378/chest.130.5.1405
[13] W. D. Travis, D. J. Giroux, K. Chansky, H. Asamura, E. Brambilla, J. Jett, C. Kennedy, R. Rami-Porta, V. W. Rusch and P. Goldstraw, “The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: Proposals for the Inclusion of Broncho-Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumors in the Forthcoming (Seventh) Edition of the TNM Classification for Lung Cancer,” Journal of Thoracic Oncology, Vol. 3, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1213-1223. doi:10.1097/JTO.0b013e31818b06e3

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.