The Role of R&D in Shaping Public Sector Typologies: An European Perspective


One of functions of the modern public states for improving dynamism in the economic system is the use of their support to cope with the market and systemic failures created in the innovation area: the R&D promoted by public administrations can be considered a dimension, among others, of their performance in society. This paper explores the relationships between the R&D promoted by public administrations and the different typologies of states from a European perspective. The results show some similarities between the public sectors in terms of general characteristics such as performance or stability and the most R&D-oriented promoters. However, differences are found depending on indicators and types analyzed. The existence of large differences within each type of public sector is also confirmed. Results suggest the influence that pro-innovation profiles of public sectors might exert on general innovation system and performance patterns in EU countries.

Share and Cite:

A. Maroto and L. Rubalcaba, "The Role of R&D in Shaping Public Sector Typologies: An European Perspective," Modern Economy, Vol. 3 No. 7, 2012, pp. 873-883. doi: 10.4236/me.2012.37110.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] K. Arrow, “Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Inventions”, In: R. Nelson, Ed., The Rate and Direction of Invective Activity, Princeton University Press, New York, 1962, pp. 609-625.
[2] R. Griffith, “How Important is Business R&D for Economic Growth and Should the Government Subsidise It?” Institute of Fiscal Studies Briefing Notes, Vol. 12, London, 2000.
[3] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, “Science, Technology and Industry Outlook”, OECD, Paris, 2002,
[4] D. Mowery and B. Sampat, ‘Universities and Innovation,” In: J. Fagerberg, D. Mowery and R. Nelson, Eds., The Handbook of Innovation, Edward Elgar, London, 2002, pp. 266-290.
[5] European Commission, “European Competitiveness Report 2004,” Brussels, 2005.
[6] A. Maroto and L. Rubalcaba, “Structure, Size and Reform of the Public Sector in Europe,” In: P. Koch and P. Windrum, Eds., Innovation in Public Sector, Management, Creativity and Entrepreneurship, Edward Elgar, London, 2008, pp. 41-63.
[7] US Council on Competitiveness, “Public Sector Innovation,” National Innovation Initiative Working Group Report, US Council on Competitiveness, 2005.
[8] Z. Griliches, “The Search for R&D Spillovers,” Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. 94, 1992, pp. 29-47. doi:10.2307/3440244
[9] P. David, B. Hall and A. Toole, “Is Public R&D a Complement or Substitute for Private R&D? A Review of the Econometric Evidence,” Research Policy, Vol. 29, No. 4-5, 2000, pp. 497-529. doi:10.1016/S0048-7333(99)00087-6
[10] G. Esping-Andersen, “The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism,” Polity Press, Cambridge, 1990.
[11] R. Titmuss, “Social Policy,” Allen and Unwin, London, 1974.
[12] SCP/CERP, “Public Sector Performance. An International Comparison of Education, Health Care, Law and Order and Public Administration,” Social and Cultural Planning Office, The Hague, 2004.
[13] F. Castles, “Welfare State Development in Southern Europe,” West European Politics, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1995, pp. 291-313. doi:10.1080/01402389508425073
[14] M. Rodhes, “Southern European Welfares States,” Frank Cass, London, 1997.
[15] G. Hofstede, “Culture’s Consequences. International Differences in Work-related Values,” Sage, California, 1980.
[16] V. Mamadouh, “National Political Cultures in the European Union,” In: M. Thompson, G. Grendstad and P. Selle, Eds., Cultural Theory as Political Science, Routledge, London, 1999, pp. 138-153.
[17] J. Loughlin, “Nation, State and Region in Western Europe,” In: L. Bekemans, Ed., Culture: Building Stone for Europe 2002, Reflections and Perspectives, Peter Lang Publishing, Brussels, 1994, pp. 90-111.
[18] L. Hooghe, “The European Commission and the Integration of Europe. Images of Governance,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511491979
[19] E. Page, “Administering Europe,” In: E. Page and E. Hayward, Eds., Governing the New Europe, Polity Press, Cambridge, 1995, pp. 257-285.
[20] M. Mellens, “Determinants of Demographic Behaviour,” In: J. de Beer and L. Van Wissen, Eds., Europe: One Continent, Different Worlds, European Population Scenarios for the 21st Century, Dordrecht, 1999, pp. 5-32.
[21] C. Hood, “A Public Management for All Seasons,” Public Administration, Vol. 69, No. 1, 1991, pp. 3-19. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9299.1991.tb00779.x
[22] H. G. Frederickson, “Comparing the Reinventing Gov- ernment Movement with the New Public Administration,” Public Administration Review, Vol. 56, No. 3, 1996, pp. 263-270. doi:10.2307/976450
[23] C. Pollit and G. Bouckaert, “Public Management Reform. A Comparative Analysis,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004,
[24] C. Knox, “Public Service Reform. Northern Ireland Executive,” Review of Public Administration Briefing Paper, Vol. 26, 2002.
[25] R. Premfors, R, “Reshaping the Democratic State: Swedish Experiences in a Comparative Perspective,” Public Administration, Vol. 76, No. 1, 1998, pp. 141-159. doi:10.1111/1467-9299.00094
[26] L. Torres and V. Pina, “Reshaping Public Administration: The Spanish Experience Compared to UK,” Public Administration, Vol. 82, No. 2, 2004, pp. 445-464. doi:10.1111/j.0033-3298.2004.00402.x
[27] G. Capano, “Administrative Traditions and Policy Change. When Policy Paradigms Matter: The Case of Italian Administrative Reform during the 90s,” Public Administration, Vol. 81, No. 4, 2003, pp. 781-801. doi:10.1111/j.0033-3298.2003.00371.x
[28] G. Henry and K. C. Dickey, “Implementing Performance Monitoring: A Research and Development Approach,” Public Administration Review, Vol. 53, No. 3, 1993, pp. 203-213. doi:10.2307/3110124
[29] C. Pope, G. Robert, P. Bate and J. Le May, “Lost in Translation: A Multilevel Case Study of the Metamorphosis of Meanings and Action in Public Sector Organizational Innovation,” Public Administration, Vol. 84, No. 1, 2006, pp. 59-79. doi:10.1111/j.0033-3298.2006.00493.x
[30] P. Koch and P. Windrum, “Innovation in Public Sector. Management, Creativity and Entrepreneurship,” Edward Elgar, London, 2008.
[31] R. Walker, E. Jeanes and R. Rowlands, “Measuring Innovation: Applying the Literature-Based Innovation Output Indicator to Public Services,” Public Administration, Vol. 80, No. 1, 2002, pp. 201-214. doi:10.1111/1467-9299.00300
[32] K.Frenken, “Why Is Economic Geography Not an Evolutionary Science?” Proceedings of the EAEPE Conference, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, 7 November 2003, 27p.
[33] C. Schweiger, “The Reform of the German Economy. The Agenda 2010 and Beyond,” Proceedings of the 54th Annual PSA conference, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, 7 April 2004, 24p.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.