Risk factors for myopia in Inner Mongolia medical students in China

DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2012.24013   PDF   HTML     4,662 Downloads   8,069 Views   Citations


Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate myopia and related factors in Inner Mongolia Medical Students, China. Methods: The survey employed a self-administered questionnaire. All medical students from the Inner Mongolia Medical University campus and those living and learning on campus were eligible. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: students’ basic information, attitude on myopia behavior, and myopia status of students. 6047 medical students completed the questionnaire. Results: A total of 6040 (90.5%) students aged 16 to 28 years (mean 21 ± 1.5 years) completed the questionnaire, of which 1772 (29.3%) were male and 4268 (70.6%) were female. The Mongolia of medical students had the lowest rate (64.3%) of myopia. The prevalence of myopia in Han nationality was highest (72.8%). Myopia occurred more frequently among students living in the city than in the rural. 76.4% urban and 66.6% rural students had myopia (p < 0.001). For myopia students it was established that 85.5% had begun to wear spectacles in middle school. Conclusion: A high myopia prevalence was demonstrated among medical students in the Inner Mongolia area of China. Our study’s findings could help health care professionals develop targeted myopia control policies for the population of students in Inner Mongolia of China and ensure the policies are more rational, useful, and effective.

Share and Cite:

Wu, Y. , Yi, H. , Liu, W. , Jia, H. , Eshita, Y. , Wang, S. , Qin, P. and Sun, J. (2012) Risk factors for myopia in Inner Mongolia medical students in China. Open Journal of Epidemiology, 2, 83-89. doi: 10.4236/ojepi.2012.24013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Saw, S.-M., Gazzard, G., Shih-Yen, E.C. and Chua, W.-H. (2005) Myopia and associated pathological complications. Ophthalmic Physiological Optics, 25, 381-391. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2005.00298.x
[2] Goldschmidt, E. (2003) The mystery of myopia. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, 81, 431-436. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0420.2003.00145.x
[3] Wallman, J. and Winawer, J. (2004) Homeostasis of eye growth and the question of myopia. Neuron, 43, 447-468. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.08.008
[4] Vitale, S., Sperduto, R.D. and Ferris, F.L. (2009) Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971-1972 and 1999-2004. Archives of Ophthalmology, 127, 1632-1639. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2009.303
[5] Midelfart, A., Kinge, B., Midelfart, S. and Lydersen, S. (2002) Prevalence of refractive errors in young and middle-aged adults in Norway. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavicai, 80, 501-505. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0420.2002.800508.x
[6] Morgan, I. and Rose, K. (2005) How genetic is school myopia. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 24, 1-38. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2004.06.004
[7] Pan, C.W., Ramamurthy, D. and Saw, S.M. (2012) Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for myopia. Ophthalmic Physiological Optics, 32, 3-16. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00884.x
[8] Vitale, S., Cotch, M.F., Sperduto, R. and Ellwein, L. (2006) Costs of refractive correction of distance vision impairment in the United States, 1999-2002. Ophthalmology, 113, 2163-2170. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.06.033
[9] Lim, M.C.C., Gazzard, G., Sim, E.-L., Tong, L. and Saw, S.-M. (2009) Direct costs of myopia in Singapore. Eye, 23, 1086-1089. doi:10.1038/eye.2008.225
[10] Vu, H.T.V., Keeffe, J.E., McCarty, C.A. and Taylor, H.R. (2005) Impact of unilateral and bilateral vision loss on quality of life. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 89, 360-363. doi:10.1136/bjo.2004.047498
[11] Morgan, I.G., Ohno-Matsui, K. and Saw, S.-M. (2012) Myopia. Ophthalmology, 379, 1739-1748.
[12] Fledelius, H. (2000) Myopia profile in Copenhagen medical students 1996-1998. Refractive stability over a century is suggested. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandina- vica, 78, 501-505. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0420.2000.078005501.x
[13] Low, W., Dirani, M., Gazzard, G., Chan, Y.-H., Zhou, H.-J., Selvaraj, P., Eong, K.-G.A., Young, T.L., Mitchell, P., Wong, T.-Y. and Saw, S.-M. (2010) Family history, near work, outdoor activity, and myopia in Singapore Chinese preschool children. British Journal of Ophthal- mology, 94, 1012-1016. doi:10.1136/bjo.2009.173187
[14] Mutti, D., Mitchell, G., Moeschberger, M., Jones, L. and Zadnik, K. (2002) Parental myopia, near work, school achievement, and children’s refractive error. Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science, 43, 3633-3640.
[15] Bian, J., Du, M., Liu, Z., Fan, Y., Eshita,Y. and Sun, J. (2012) Prevalence of and factors associated with daily smoking among Inner Mongolia medical students in China: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 7, 20. doi:10.1186/1747-597X-7-20
[16] Bian, J., Yi, H., Liu, Z.Y., Li, G.M., Ba, T., Zhang, Q. and Sun, J. (2012) Prevalence of and factors associated with various level of body weight among Inner Mongolia medical students in China. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2, 123-130. doi:10.4236/ojpm.2012.22018
[17] Lv, L. and Zhang, Z. (2012) Pattern of myopia pro- gression in Chinese medical students: A two-year follow- up study. Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 12, 2074-2079. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22678717
[18] Vitale, S., Ellwein, L., Cotch, M.F., Ferris, F.L. and Sperduto, R. (2008) Prevalence of refractive error in the United States, 1999-2004. Archives of Ophthalmology, 126, 1111-1119. doi:10.1001/archopht.126.8.1111
[19] Kempen, J., Mitchell, P., Lee, K., Tielsch, J., Broman, A., Taylor, H., Ikram, M., Congdon, N., O’Colmain, B. and the Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group (2004) The prevalence of refractive errors among adults in the United States, Western Europe, and Australia. Archives of Oph thalmology, 122, 495-505. doi:10.1001/archopht.122.4.495
[20] Midelfart, A., Aamo, B., Sjohaug, K.A. and Dysthe, B.E. (1992) Myopia among medical students in Norway. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, 70, 317-322. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1636390
[21] Mozolewska-Piotrowska, K., Stepniewska, J. and Naw- rocka, J. (2005) Frequency and incidence of myopia among medical students. Klinika Oczna, 107, 468-470. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16416999
[22] Lam, C.S., Goldschmidt, E. and Edwards, M.H. (2004) Prevalence of myopia in local and international schools in Hong Kong. Optometry and Vision Science, 81, 317-322. doi:10.1097/01.opx.0000134905.98403.18
[23] Morgan, A., Young, R., Narankhand, B., Chen, S., Cottriall, C. and Hosking S. (2006) Prevalence rate of myopia in schoolchildren in rural Mongolia. Optometry and Vision Science, 83, 53-56. doi:10.1097/01.opx.0000195567.88641.af
[24] Shi, Y., Qu, J., Zhang, D.D., Zhao, P.Q., Zhang, Q.J., Tam, P.O.S., Sun, L.D., Zuo, X.T., Xiao, X.S., Hu, J.B., Li, T.F., et al. (2011) Genetic variants at 13q12.12 are associated with high myopia in the Han Chinese population. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 88, 805-813. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21640322
[25] Han, W., Leung, K.H., Fung, W.Y., Mak, J.Y., Li, Y.M., Yap, M.K. and Yip, S.P. (2009) Association of PAX6 polymorphisms with high myopia in Han Chinese nuclear families. Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science, 50, 1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19124844
[26] Jones-Jordan, L.A., Sinnott, L.T., Manny, R.E., Cotter, S.A., Kleinstein, R.N., Mutti, D.O., Twelker, J.D., Zadnik, K. and The Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study Group (2010) Early childhood refractive error and parental history of myopia as predictors of myopia. Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science, 51, 115-121. doi:10.1167/iovs.08-3210
[27] Jones, L.A., Sinnott, L.T., Mutti, D.O., Mitchell, G.L., Moeschberger, M.L. and Zadnik, K. (2007) Parental history of myopia, sports and outdoor activities, and future myopia. Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science, 48, 8. doi:10.1167/iovs.06-1118
[28] Rawstron, J.A., Burley, C.D. and Elder, M.J. (2005) A systematic review of the applicability and efficacy of eye exercises. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 42, 82-88.
[29] Jacobsen, N., Jensen, H. and Goldschmidt, E. (2008) Does the level of physical activity in university students in?uence development and progression of myopia?—A 2-year prospective cohort study. Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science, 49, 1322-1327. doi:10.1167/iovs.07-1144
[30] Saw, S.-M., Gazzard, G., Eong, K.-G.A. and Koh, D. (2003) Utility values and myopia in teenage school students. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 87, 341-345. doi:10.1136/bjo.87.3.341
[31] Cakmak, S.S., Unlu, M.K., Karaca, C., Nergiz, Y. and ?pek, S. (2003) Effects of soft contact lenses on conjunctival surface. Eye and Contact Lens, 29, 230-233. doi:10.1097/01.icl.0000086492.28723.0C
[32] Rivas, L., Oroza, M.A., Perez-Esteban, A. and Murubedel-Castillo, J. (1992) Morphological changes in ocular surface in dry eyes and other disorders by impression cytology. Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 230, 329-334. doi:10.1007/BF00165940

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.