Kinetic Studies for an Aerobic Packed Bed Biofilm Reactor for Treatment of Organic Wastewater with and without Phenol
Sudipta Dey, Somnath Mukherjee
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.28084   PDF   HTML   XML   7,346 Downloads   12,801 Views   Citations


A laboratory scale aerobic fixed film bioreactor packed with glass beads for biofilm growth was used to evaluate the removal efficiencies of COD and phenol for a carbohydrate—phenol mixture in wastewater. It was done by an indigenous mixed culture inoculums developed after collecting sludge from a return line of an activated sludge plant. The test result on continuous flow in the above biofilm reactor indicated an optimum hydraulic loading range of 4-6.4 m3day-1m-2 for attainment of reasonable amount of COD removal in case of carbohydrate substrate only. The COD removal efficiency, however, gradually depleted from 100% to 54% by gradual increase in organic loading (OLR) from 0.72-4.32 kgday-1m-3, beyond which removal was not significant. For the identical loading conditions, in presence of phenol in the substrate along with carbohydrate, the COD removal was observed varying from 100-40% in the above organic loading range. The COD removal kinetics in presence of phenol also shows a decreasing trend compared to data obtained without the presence of phenol in wastewater that reveals biological inhibition. The experimental data were fitted in a simple plug flow model for evaluating the zero order, first order and Monod form of rate equations to evaluate the kinetics. It was found that Monod type rate equations combining a zero and first order rate expression is the best fit for the above hydraulic and organic loading that gives a best fit half velocity constant value of 35 mgL-1 (R2 = 0.9612).

Share and Cite:

S. Dey and S. Mukherjee, "Kinetic Studies for an Aerobic Packed Bed Biofilm Reactor for Treatment of Organic Wastewater with and without Phenol," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2 No. 8, 2010, pp. 731-738. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.28084.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. Sagy and Y. Kott, “Efficiency of Rotating Biological Contactor in Removing Pathogenic Bacteria from Do-mestic Sewage,” Water Research, Vol. 24, No. 9, 1990, pp. 1125-1128.
[2] M. Henze and P. Harremoes “Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewater in Fixed Film Reactors—A Literature Re-view,” Water Science Technology, Vol. 15, No. 8-9, 1983, pp. 1-101.
[3] M. G. S. Yap, W. J. Ng and H. Chua, “Performance of an Anaerobic Biofilter for 2-Ethylhexanoic Acid Degrada-tion,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 41, No. 1, 1991, pp. 45-51.
[4] A. M. G. Monteiro, R. Boaventura and A. Rodrigues, “Phenol Biodegradation by Pseudomonas Putida DSM 548 in a Batch Reactor,” Biochemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2000, pp. 45-49.
[5] A. Kumar, S. Kumar and S. Kumar, “Biodegradation kinetics of Phenol and Catechol Using Psedomonas Pu-tida MTCC 1194,” Biochemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2005, pp. 151-159.
[6] M. Maeda, A. Itoh and Y. Kawasw, “Kinetics for Aerobic Biological Treatment of O-Cresol Containing Wastewaters in a Slurry Bioreactor: Biodegradation by Utilizing Waste Activated Sludge,” Biochemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2005, pp. 97-103.
[7] C. S. A. Sa and R. Boaventura, “Biodegradation of Phenol by Pseudomonas Putida DSM 548 in a Trickling Bed Reactor,” Biochemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2001, pp. 211-219.
[8] P. Kumaran and Y. L. Paruchuri, “Kinetics of Phenol Biotransformation,” Water Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1977, pp. 11-22.
[9] M. Schroder, C. Miller, C. Posten, W. D. Deckwer and V. Hechit, “Inhibition Kinetics of Phenol Degradation from Unstable Steady-State Data,” Biotechnology Bioengi-neering, Vol. 54, No. 6, 1997, pp. 567-576.
[10] K. Bandyopadhyay, D. Das and B. R. Maiti, “Kinetics of Phenol Degradation Using Psuedomonas Putida MTCC 1194,” Bioprocess Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 5, 1998, pp. 372-377.
[11] N. T. Joshi and S. F. D’Souza, “Immobilization of Acti-vated Sludge for the Degradation of Phenol,” Journal of Environmental Health (A), Vol. 34, No. 9, 1990, pp. 689-700.
[12] J. S. Melo, S. Kholi, A. W. Patrawardhan and S. F. D’Souza, “Effect of Oxygen Transfer Limitations in Phenol Biodegradation,” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2005, pp. 625-628.
[13] D. J. Richards and W. K. Shieh, “Biological Fate of Or-ganic Priority Pollutants in the Aquatic Environment,” Water Research, Vol. 20, No. 9, 1986, pp. 1077-1090.
[14] I. Talinli and A. Farag, “Enhanced Removal of Phenol and M-Cresol in PAC Additional Activated Sludge System,” Environmental Technology, Vol. 15, No. 12, 1994, pp. 1121-1134.
[15] C. A. Papadimitriou, X. Dabou, P. Samaras and G. P. Sakellaropoulos, “Coke Oven Wastewater Treatment by Two Activated Sludge Systems,” Global NEST Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2006, pp. 16-22.
[16] H. Movahedyan, H. Khorsandi, R. Salehi and M. Nikaeen, “Detection of Phenol Degrading Bacteria and Pseudo-monas Putida in Activated Sludge by Polymerase Chain Reaction,” Iran Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2009, pp. 115-120.
[17] G. Srinivasan, R. Subramaniam and N. Kumar, “Kinetic Evaluation of Fixed Film Fixed Bed Anaerobic Reactor by Using Dairy Wastewater,” American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2009, pp. 213- 218.
[18] K. J. Kennedy and R. L. Droste, “Startup of Anaerobic Downflow Stationary Fixed Film (DSFF) Reactors,” Biotechnology Bioengineering, Vol. 27, No. 8, 2004, pp. 1152-1165.
[19] R. Ganesh, R. Rajinikanth, J. V. Thanikal, R. A. Ramanu-jam and M. Torrijos, “Anaerobic Treatment of Winery Wastewater in Fixed Bed Reactors,” Bioprocess Biosys-tems Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 5, 2010, pp. 619-628.
[20] G. R. Moosavi, A. R. Mesdaghinia, K. Naddafi, A. H Mahvi and J. Nouri, “Feasibility of Development and Application of an Up-Flow Anaerobic/Aerobic Fixed Bed Combined Reactor to Treat High Strength Wastewaters,” Journal of Applied Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2005, pp. 169- 171.
[21] R. D. Pozo and V. Diez, “Organic Matter Removal in Combined Anaerobic–Aerobic Fixed-Film Bioreactors,” Water Research, Vol. 37, No. 15, 2003, pp. 3561-3568.
[22] L. Bertin, M. C. Colao, M. Ruzzi, L. Marchetti and F. Fava, “Performances and Microbial Features of an Aerobic Packed Bed Biofilm Reactor Developed to Post Treat an Olive Mill Effluent from an Aerobic GAC Reactor,” Microbial Cell Factories, Vol. 5, No. 16, 2006.
[23] A. M. Gerrard, J. Koste?ková, J. Páca, M. Stiborová and C. R. Soccol, “Simple Models for the Continuous Aerobic Biodegradation of Phenol in a Packed Bed Reactor,” Brazilian Achieves of Biology and Technology, Vol. 49, No. 4, 2006, pp. 669-676.
[24] T. Wilson and D. R. Yonge, “Kinetics of Phenol Biode-gradation in High Salt Solutions,” Water Research, Vol. 36, No. 19, 2002, pp. 4811-4820.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.