Urban Wastewater Characteristic and its Management in Urban Areas—A Case Study of Mysore City, Karnataka, India
Shakunthala Bai, Shivanna Srikantaswamy, Doddaiah Shivakumar
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.28082   PDF    HTML     7,991 Downloads   14,778 Views   Citations


The rapid growth of the population, the technological and industrial boom has brought enormous prob-lems and degradation of the environment. There is a gradual decline in availability of fresh water to be used for irrigation in India. As a consequence, the use of urban waste water (UWW) for irrigating agricultural lands is on the rise particularly in peri-urban areas of developing countries. Effective collection and treatment of urban wastewater is a critical problem in a developing country like India. A case study was undertaken to assess the characteristic of the urban waste water and its management in Mysore city and its long-term effect on irrigation. The untreated and treated urban waste water was collected during 2008 and analyzed in the laboratory. The suitability of the UWW for irrigation purposes is then evaluated according to the existing water quality standards and the results were compared with Food and Agriculture organization (FAO) irrigation water quality standards. It is evident from the results, that the current situation is not promising especially regarding the Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Solids and heavy metal concentrations and also pH of the treated UWW is exceeding the FAO standards. Among the heavy metals, the concentration of Iron and chromium are exceeding the FAO standards.

Share and Cite:

S. Bai, S. Srikantaswamy and D. Shivakumar, "Urban Wastewater Characteristic and its Management in Urban Areas—A Case Study of Mysore City, Karnataka, India," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2 No. 8, 2010, pp. 717-726. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.28082.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] W. van der Hoek, et al., “A Frame Work for a Global Assessment of the Extent of Wastewater Irrigation: The Need for a Common Wastewater Typology, ” International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Bierstalpad, 2004.
[2] A. Bradford, R. Brook and C. S. Hunshal, “Wastewater Irrigation in Hubli–Dharwad, India: Implications for health and livelihoods,” Environment & Urbanization, Vol. 15, No. 2, October 2003, pp. 157-170.
[3] F. Marshall, R. Sharma, et al., “Waste Water Irrigation and Heavy Metal Contamination in Peri-Urban India,” Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8, No. 09058, 2006.
[4] American Public Health Association, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water,” American Public Health Association, Water Environment Foundation and American Water Works Association, Washington, D.C., 1998.
[5] T. Asano, F. L. Burto, H. L. Leveren, R. Suchihashi and G. Tchobanoglous, “Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse,” 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 2003.
[6] T. A. Bauder, G. E. Cardon, R. M. Waskom and J. G. Davis, “Irrigation Water Quality Criteria,” 2004.
[7] World Health Organization, “WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater: Volume II Wastewater use in Agriculture,” WHO, Geneva, 2006.
[8] Chandrasekaran and Rajkannan, “Nature and Charac- teristics of Sewage Effluents of Tamil Nadu,” The Madras Agricultural Journal, Vol. 90, No. 1-3, 2003, pp.124-128.
[9] N. Muthukumaran and Dr. N. K. Ambujam, “Wastewater Treatment and Management in Urban Areas—A Case Study of Tiruchirappalli City, Tamil Nadu, India,” Pro- ceedings of the 3rd International Conference on En- vironment and Health, Chennai, 15-17 December 2003, pp. 284-289.
[10] M. B. Pescod, “Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agri-culture,” Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Irri- gation and Drainage Paper, 1992, p. 73.
[11] R. S. Ayres and D. W. Westcot, “Water Quality for Agriculture,” FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, No. 29, Rev. 1, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 1994, p. 59.
[12] R. Mikkelsen and J. Camberato, “Potassium, Sulfur, Lime and Micronutrient Fertilizers,” In: J. Rechcigl, Ed., Soil Amendments and Environment Quality, Lewis Publishing, Boca Raton, 1995, pp. 109-137.
[13] J. Lester, “Heavy Metals in Wastewater and Sludge Treatment Process, ” CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, 1987, pp. 1-40.
[14] P. Chanpiwat1, K.-W. Kim and S. Sthiannopkao, “Metal Contents and its Variation in Wastewater and Sewage Sludge: A Case Study of Bangkok Central Wastewater Treatment Plants,” Proceedings of the International Symposia on Geoscience Resources and Environments of Asian Terranes (GREAT 2008), 4th International Geo- logical Correlation Programme (IGCP) 516, and 5th Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, Bangkok, 24-26 November 2008.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.