Individual and Combined Effects of Nucleotides and Human Milk Oligosaccharides on Proliferation, Apoptosis and Necrosis in a Human Fetal Intestinal Cell Line


Nucleotides (NT) and human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) individually affect epithelial cell growth, but their combined effects had not been studied. Herein, the impact of NT and HMO on cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis and cell cycle in the fetal epithelial cell line (FHs-74 Int) was determined. Cells were incubated with media containing 2.5% FBS and no epidermal growth factor (Control); fucosyllactose (FL) mix [85% 2’FL/15% 3’FL], sialyllactose (SL) mix [40% 6’SL/10% 3’SL/50% sialic acid (SA)] or LNnT at 125, 250, 500 or 1000 μg/mL with and without 250 μg/mL NT (43% CMP, 18.5% UMP, 16.4% AMP, and 22.0% GMP) for 24 or 72 h. NT alone significantly increased proliferation, but did not affect cell cycle or apoptosis/necrosis. All HMO treatments at 1000 μg/mL significantly decreased proliferation and some were also inhibitory at 250 or 500 μg/mL. When NT and HMO were simultaneously added, NT ameliorated the anti-proliferative effect of HMO. FL significantly increased cells in S phase and SL and LNnT treatments significantly increased cells in G2/M and S phases, which concomitantly decreased cells in G0/G1. HMO with NT significantly decreased the percent of cells in the G2/M phase compared to HMO alone. Higher HMO doses significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic and necrotic cells compared to control. In conclusion, HMO reduced cell proliferation and this effect is partially ameliorated by NT. It appears that HMO initially induced apoptosis/necrosis, which was later evidenced by G2/M cell cycle arrest and decreased proliferation.

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S. Hester and S. Donovan, "Individual and Combined Effects of Nucleotides and Human Milk Oligosaccharides on Proliferation, Apoptosis and Necrosis in a Human Fetal Intestinal Cell Line," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 11, 2012, pp. 1567-1576. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.311205.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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