Optimization of Extrusion Process for Producing High Antioxidant Instant Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Flour Using Response Surface Methodology


The objective of this research was to determine the best combination of extrusion process variables for the production of a high antioxidant extruded amaranth flour (EAF) suitable to elaborate a nutraceutical beverage. Extrusion operation conditions were obtained from a factorial combination of process variables: Extrusion temperature (ET, 70℃ - 130?℃) and screw speed (SS, 100 - 220 rpm). Response surface methodology was employed as optimization technique; both the numeric and graphical methods were applied to obtain maximum values for response variables [Antioxidant capacity (AoxC) and water solubility index (WSI)]. The best combination of extrusion process variables was: Extrusion tem- perature (ET) = 130℃/Screw speed (SS) = 124 rpm. The raw amaranth flour (RAF) and optimized extruded amaranth flour (EAF) had an antioxidant activity of 3475 and 3903 μmol Trolox equivalents/100 g sample (dw), respectively. A 200 mL portion of the beverage prepared with 22 g of optimized EAF contained 3.16 g proteins, 1.09 g lipids, 17.39 g carbohydrates and 92 kcal. This portion covers 25.3% and 16.9% of the daily protein requirements for children 1-3 and 4 - 8 years old, respectively. A 200 mL portion of the beverage from optimized EAF contributes with 15.5% - 25.5% of the recommended daily intake for antioxidants, respectively. The nutraceutical beverage was evaluated with an average acceptability of 8.4 (level of satisfaction between “I like it” and “I like it extremely”) and could be used for health promotion and disease prevention as an alternative to beverages with low nutritional/nutraceutical value.

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J. Milán-Carrillo, A. Montoya-Rodríguez, R. Gutiérrez-Dorado, X. Perales-Sánchez and C. Reyes-Moreno, "Optimization of Extrusion Process for Producing High Antioxidant Instant Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Flour Using Response Surface Methodology," Applied Mathematics, Vol. 3 No. 10A, 2012, pp. 1516-1525. doi: 10.4236/am.2012.330211.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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