Measurement of Arsenic Species in Infant Rice Cereals by Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry


Infant rice cereals were analyzed for total arsenic, inorganic arsenic (i-As) and the organic arsenic species monomethylarsonoic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). Total arsenic concentrations in the samples ranged from 110 ng/gup to 420 ng/g. The i-As in the rice cereals accounted for 33% to 77% of the total arsenic. The observed variability between infant rice cereals makes a dietary survey approach to accessing arsenic exposures difficult.

Share and Cite:

J. Brockman and J. Brown IV, "Measurement of Arsenic Species in Infant Rice Cereals by Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 3 No. 10, 2012, pp. 693-697. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2012.310091.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. A. Duker, E. J. Carranza and M. Hale, “Arsenic Geochemistry and Health,” Environment International, Vol. 31, No. 5, 2005, pp. 631-641. doi:10.1016/j.envint. 2004.10.020
[2] J. C. States, S. Srivastava, Y. Chen and A. Barchowsky, “Arsenic and Cardiovascular Disease,” Toxicological Science, Vol. 107, No. 2, 2009, pp. 312-323. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfn236
[3] H. Y. Chiou, Y. M. Hsueh, K. F. Liaw, S. F. Horng, M. H. Chiang, Y. S. Pu, J. S. N. Lin, C. H. Huang and C. J. Chen, “Incidence of Internal Cancers and Ingested Inorganic Arsenic: A Seven-Year Follow-Up Study in Taiwan,” The Journal of Cancer Research, Vol. 55, No. 6, 1995, pp. 1296-1300.
[4] D. Gilbert-Diamond, K. L. Cottingham, J. F. Gruber, T. Punshon, V. Sayarath, A. J. Gandolfi, E. R. Baker, B. P. Jackson, C. L. Folt and M. R. Karagas, “Rice Consumption Contributes to Arsenic Exposure in US Women,” Proceedings of the National Academic Science of the United States of America, Vol. 108, No. 51, 2011, pp. 20656-20660. doi:10.1073/pnas.1109127108
[5] T. Llorente-Mirandes, J. Calderón, J. F. López-Sánchez, F. Centrich and R. Rubio, “A Fully Validated Method for the Determination of Arsenic Species in Rice and Infant Cereal Products,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 84, No. 2, 2012, pp. 225-238. doi:10.1351/PAC-CON-11-09-30
[6] B. P. Jackson, V. F. Taylor, T. Punshon and K. L. Cottingham, “Arsenic Concentration and Speciation in Infant Formulas and First Foods,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 84, No. 2, 2012, pp. 215-223.
[7] B. P. Jackson, V. F. Taylor, M. R. Karagas, T. Punshon and K. L. Cottingham, “Arsenic, Organic Foods and Brown Rice Syrup,” Environmental Health Perspect, Vol. 120, No. 5, 2012, pp. 623-626.
[8] G. X. Sun, P. N. Williams, Y. G. Zhu, C. Deacon, A. M. Carey, A. Raab, J. Feldmann and A. A. Meharg, “Survey of Arsenic and Its Speciation in Rice Products Such as Breakfast Cereals, Rice Crackers and Japanese Rice Condiments,” Environment International, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2009, pp. 473-475. doi:10.1016/j.envint. 2008.07.020
[9] Y. Takahashi, R. Minamikawa, K. H. Hattori, K. Kur- ishima, N. Kihou and K. Yuita, “Arsenic Behavior in Pad-dy Fields during the Cycle of Flooded and Non-Flooded Periods,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2004, pp. 1038-1044. doi:10.1021/es034383n
[10] G. J. Norton, S. R. M. Pinson, J. Alexander, et al., “Variation in Grain Arsenic Assessed in a Diverse Panel of Rice (Oryza Sativa) Grown in Multiple Sites,” New Phytologist, Vol. 193, No. 3, 2012, pp. 650-664. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03983.x
[11] S. Quazi, D. Sarkar and R. Datta, “Changes in Arsenic Fractionation, Bioaccessibility and Speciation in Organo- Arsenical Pesticide Amended Soils as a Function of Soil Aging,” Chemosphere, Vol. 84, No 11, 2011, pp. 1563- 1571.
[12] A. A. Meharg, E. Lombi, P. N. Williams, et al., “Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2008, pp. 1051-1057. doi:10.1021/es702212p
[13] A. M. Carey, E. Lombi, E. Donner, et al., “A Review of Recent Developments in the Speciation and Location of Arsenic and Selenium in Rice Grain,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 402, No. 10, 2012, pp. 3275- 3286. doi:10.1007/s00216-011-5579-x
[14] J. D. Brockman and L. Schell, “A Radiochemical Method for Neutron Activation Analysis of Arsenic in Biological Samples and Its Potential Use in Epidemiology Studies,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 291, No. 2, 2012, pp.473-478. doi:10.1007/s10967-011-1196-6
[15] A. A. Carbonell-Barrachina, X. Wu, A. Ramírez-Gan- dolfo, et al., “Inorganic Arsenic Contents in Rice-Based Infant Foods from Spain, UK, China and USA,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 163, 2012, pp. 77-83. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.12.036

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.