Nutrient Budget for Optimal Oil Palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq) Yield on Coastal Plain Sands Soils of Akwa Ibom State Nigeria


The objective of the study was to establish approximate relationships between yield and soil nutrients in oil palm production. The study was conducted in Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) substation Ibesit ekoi in Oruk Anam Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State Nigeria. Soil, rainfall and yield data were collected from oil palm plantation established 49, 29, 9 and 0 (control) years ago in an area underlain by coastal plain sands. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and multiple stepwise regression analysis were used to study variations, effect of land use on soil properties at different depths and contributions of various soil nutrients at different depths to the yield (fresh fruit bunch ‘FFB’ and palm oil) of oil palm. Results of coefficient of variability revealed that approx. 45.5% of the variables were highly variable including available phosphorus, extractable zinc, FFB and palm oil, while others were either least or moderately variable. Oil palm trees influenced soil development with its effect on silt content at 30 - 60 cm depth. Uptake of phosphorus in oil palm land use system decreases with depth. This was further confirmed by the relative contribution of available phosphorus to FFB yield that decreased from the surface of the soil downwards. Extractable zinc contents of oil palm land use were not significantly different from each other (ranging between 9.65 and 7.84 mg·kg–1) but significantly different from the control (23.99 mg·kg–1). In the modeling process, it was observed that the absolute contribution of texture was minimal while exchangeable sodium was highest (i.e. 66.5 percent) in the quantity of oil palm production. Also extractable copper and zinc were found to have made large contributions to FFB and oil palm. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a high-yielding source of edible and technical oils but requires proper knowledge and precise administration of nutrient demands for management of a major production constraint which is soil fertility.

Share and Cite:

J. Obi and B. Udoh, "Nutrient Budget for Optimal Oil Palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq) Yield on Coastal Plain Sands Soils of Akwa Ibom State Nigeria," Open Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2012, pp. 289-298. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2012.23035.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. Rieger, “Introduction to Fruit Crops,” Haworth Press, Inc., New York, 2006.
[2] E. Mutert, “Suitability of Soils for Oil Palm in Southeast Asia,” Better Crops International, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1999, pp. 36-38.
[3] A. E. Imogie, C. V. Udosen and M. M. Ugbah, “Fertility Indices and Management of Hydromorphic Soils Supporting Raphia Palm (Raphia hookeri) Mann and Wend Land) Plantation at Onuebum, Bayelsa State, Nigeria,” Continental Journal of Agronomy, Vol. 2, 2008, pp. 19-24.
[4] K. O. Soyebo, A. J. Farinde and E. D. Dionco-Adetayo, “Constraints of Oil Palm Production in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State,” Nigerian Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2005, pp. 55-59.
[5] A. M. Tarmizi, “Nutritional Requirements and Efficiency of Fertilizer Use in Malaysian Oil Palm Cultivation,” In: B. Yusof, B. S. Jalani and K. W. Chan, Eds., Advances in Oil Palm Research, 2000, pp. 411-440.
[6] S. K. Ng, “Review of Oil Palm Nutrient and Manuring: Scope for Greater Economy in Fertilizer Usage,” Oleagineux, Vol. 32, No. 5, 1977, pp 197-209.
[7] S. K. Ng, Y. P. Tan, E. Chan and S. P. Cheong, “Nutritional Complexes of Oil Palms Planted on Peat Soil in Malaysia. II. Preliminary Results of Copper Sulphate Treatments,” Oleagineux, Vol. 29, No. 10, 1974, pp 445-456.
[8] G. Singh, “Micronutrient Studies of the Oil Palm on Peat,” The Seminar on Fertilizers in Malaysian Agriculture, Serdang, 28 March 1983, pp. 763-779.
[9] SLUS-AK, “Soils and Land Use Survey of Akwa Ibom,” Government Printers, Uyo, 1989.
[10] A. G. Ojanuga, G. Lekwa and F. O. R. Akamigbo, “Survey, Classification and Genesis of Acid Sands,” In: E. J. Udo and R. A. Sobulo, Eds., Acid Sands of Southeastern Nigeria, Soil Science Society of Nigerian, 1981, pp. 1-7.
[11] G. E. K. Ofomata, “Actual and Potential Erosion in Nigeria and Measures for Control,” In: E. J. Udo and R. A. Sobulo, Eds., Acid Sands of Southeastern Nigeria, Soil Science Society of Nigerian, 1981, pp 151-165.
[12] G. Lekwa and E. P. Whiteside, “Coastal Plain Soils of Southeastern Nigeria: I. Morphology, Classification and Genetic Relationship,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 50, No. 1, 1986, pp. 154-160.
[13] G. W. Gee and J. W. Bauder, “Particle Size Analysis,” In: A. Klute, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 1986. pp. 404-407.
[14] D. W. Nelson and I. E. Sommer, “Total Carbon, Organic Carbon and Organic Matter,” In: A. I. Page, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part II, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 1982, pp. 961-1010.
[15] E. O. McLean, “Soil pH and Lime Requirement,” In: A. I. Page, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part II, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 1982, pp. 199-223.
[16] A. Mehlick, “Mehlick 3 Soil Test Extractant: A Modification of Mehlick 2 Extractant,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 15, No. 12, 1984, pp. 1409-1416. doi:10.1080/00103628409367568
[17] J. M. Anderson and J. S. I. Ingram, “Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility. A Handbook of Methods,” 2nd Edition, CAB International, Wallingford, 1993.
[18] Soil Survey Staff, “Keys to Soil Taxonomy. United States Department of Agriculture,” Natural Resources Conservation Services, Washington, DC, 2006.
[19] S. S. Shapiro and M. B. Wilk, “An Analysis of Variance Test for Normality,” Biometrika, Vol. 52, No. 3-4, 1965, pp. 691-710.
[20] SAS Institute, “SAS/STST User’s Guide, Version 6,” 4th Edition, SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, 1989.
[21] L. P. Wilding, “Spatial Variability: Its Documentation, Accommodation, and Implication to Soil Surveys,” In: D. R. Nielsen and J. Bouma, Eds., Soil Spatial Variability, Pudoc., Wageningen, 1985, pp. 166-194.
[22] T. O. Ibia, G. S. Effiong, P. I. Ogban and J. C. Obi, “Relationship between Phosphorus Forms and Parent Materials in Soils of Southeastern Nigeria,” Acta Agronomica Nigeriana, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2009, pp. 104-112.
[23] J. C. Obi and A. O. Ogunkunle, “Influence of Termite Infestation on the Spatial Variability of Soil Properties in the Guinea Savanna Region of Nigeria,” Geoderma, Vol. 148, No. 3-4, 2009, pp. 357-368.
[24] A. O. Olaleye, A. O. Ogunkunle and K. L. Sahrawal, “Forms and Pedogenic Distribution of Extractable Iron in Selected Wetland Soils in Nigeria,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 31, No. 7-8, 2000, pp. 923-941. doi:10.1080/00103620009370488
[25] J. D. Phillips, “Soil System Modelling and Generation of Field Hypotheses,” Geroderma, Vol. 145, No. 3-4, 2008, pp. 419-425. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2007.07.001
[26] J. D. Shaw, E. C. Sr. Packee and C. L. Ping, “Growth of Balsam Poplar and Black Cottonwood in Alaska in Relation to Landform and Soil,” Canada Journal of Soil Resources, Vol. 31, No. 10, 2001, pp. 1793-1804.
[27] R. L. Voortman, J. Brouwer and P. J. Albersen, “Characterization of Spatial Soil Variability and Its Effect on Millet Yield on Sudano-Sahelian Coversands in SW Niger,” Geoderma, Vol. 121, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 65-82.
[28] J. C. Obi, G. E. Akinbola, A. O. Ogunkunle and A. O. Umeojiakor, “Profile Distribution of Clay, Ca, Mg and K in Some Soils of the Savanna Region of Nigeria,” Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2010, pp. 76-83.
[29] J. S. Strock, D. K. Cassel and M. L. Gumpertz, “Spatial Variability of Water and Bromide Transport through Variably Saturated Soil Blocks,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 65, No. 6, 2001, pp. 1607-1617. doi:10.2136/sssaj2001.1607
[30] M. Duffera, J. G. White and R. Weisz, “Spatial Variability of Southeastern U. S. Coastal Plain Soil physical properties: Implication for Site-Specific Management,” Geoderma, Vol. 137, No. 3-4, 2007, pp. 327-339.
[31] T. O. Ibia, I. B. Uko-Haka, S. O. Edem, P. I. Ogban and J. C. Obi, “Evaluation of the Acid Soils for Sanitary Landfills in Akwa Ibom State, Southeastern Nigeria,” Nigerian Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2011. pp. 1-5.
[32] P. I. Ogban and I. O. Ekerette, “Physical and Chemical Properties of the Coastal Plain Sands Soils of Southeastern Nigeria,” Nig. J. Soil Res. Vol. 2, 2001. pp. 6-14.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.