Share This Article:

Saskatchewan Doukhobor Russian: A Disappearing Language

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:143KB) PP. 90-96
DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2012.23012    3,426 Downloads   5,934 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This paper introduces the history and surveys some features of Saskatchewan Doukhobor Russian, a near-extinct variety of the Russian language spoken in the Canadian prairie province of Saskatchewan. The paper also outlines the reasons for the language loss in Saskatchewan.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Makarova, V. (2012). Saskatchewan Doukhobor Russian: A Disappearing Language. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 2, 90-96. doi: 10.4236/ojml.2012.23012.

References

[1] Aboriginal Peoples (2012). Guide to the records of the government of Canada. URL (last checked 27 July 2012). http://www.collectionscanada.ca/02/0201200109_e.html
[2] Aitchison, J. (1991). Language change: Progress or decay (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[3] Anderson, A. B. (1990). German settlements in Saskatchewan: Origin and development of German Catholic, Lutheran, Baptist, Mennonite and Hutterite communities. Saskatoon: Saskatchewan German Council.
[4] Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism (2nd ed.). London and New York: Verso.
[5] Anthony, L. (1983). Heritage languages: A Bibliography. Regina: Multicultural Council of Saskatchewan.
[6] Avanesov, R. I. (1956). Fonetika sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo jazyka. Moscow: Moscow University Press.
[7] Betke, C. (1899-1909). The Mounted police and the Doukhobors in Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan History, 27, 1-14.
[8] Bolinger, D. (1980). Language: The loaded weapon. London: Longman.
[9] Bradley, D., & Bradley, M. (2002). Language endangerment and language maintenance. London: Routledge.
[10] Canada. Statistics on Official languages of Saskatchewan. Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages. URL (last checked 27 July 2012). http://www.ocolclo.gc.ca/youth_jeunes/tools_outils/stat_can_sk.asp?Lang=English
[11] Canada (1993). Education and Canada’s First Nations: A strategy for change. Ottawa: Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.
[12] Canada (1996). Report of the royal commission on aboriginal peoples. Ottawa: The Commission on Aboriginal People.
[13] Canada (2005). Task force on aboriginal languages and cultures towards a new beginning: A foundational report for a strategy to revitalize First Nation, Inuit and Métis languages and cultures: Report to the Minister of Canadian Heritage. Ottawa: Task Force on Aboriginal Languages and Cultures.
[14] Canada (2007). Communities speak out, hear our voice: The vitality of official language minority communities: Report of the Standing Committee on Official Languages. Ottawa: Standing Committee on Official languages.
[15] The Canadian Encyclopedia. URL (last checked 12 January 2011). http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0008280
[16] Chiswick, B. R. (1992). Immigration, language and ethnicity: Canada and the United States. Washington DC: Aei Press.
[17] Chiswick, B. R., & Miller, P. W. (2003). The complementarity of language and other human capital: Immigrant earnings in Canada. Economics of Education Review, 22, 469-480. doi:10.1016/S0272-7757(03)00037-2
[18] Crystal, D. (2000). Language death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139106856
[19] Cummins, J., & Danesi, M. (1990). Heritage languages: The development and denial of Canada’s linguistic resources. Toronto: Our Schools/ Ourselves Education Foundation.
[20] Dalj, V. I. (1880-1882). The thesaurus of the live Great-Russian language. URL (last checked on 27 July 2012). http://vidahl.agava.ru/
[21] Danesi, M., McLeod, K. A., & Morris, S. (1993). Heritage languages and education: The Canadian experience. Oakville, ON: Mosaic Press.
[22] Douaud, P. C. (1982). All mixed: Canadian Métis sociolinguistic patterns. Working Papers in Sociolinguistics, 101, 34.
[23] Edwards, J. (1998). Language in Canada. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[24] Elliott, D. (2010). Demographic trends in Saskatchewan and their impact on labour market supply. The New Democartic Party Policy Review, 27 March 2010.
[25] Freeden, S. M. (1991). On the critical list: Sociolinguistic survey of indigenous languages in Saskatchewan. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan.
[26] Golubeva-Monatkina, N. I. (2004). Russkaia emigrantskaia rech' v Kanade kontsa XX veka: Teksty i kommentarii. Moscow: Editorial URSS.
[27] Hewson, J. (2000). The French Language in Canada. Munich: LINCOM Europa.
[28] Hinton, L., & Hale, K. (2001). The Green book of language revitalization in practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[29] Holmes, J. (2001). An introduction to sociolinguistics (2nd ed.). London: Longman.
[30] Hudon, M. (2007). Language regimes in the provinces and territories. Ottawa: Parliamentary Information and Research Service.
[31] Inikova, S. A. (1999). Doukhobor incantations through the centuries. Ottawa: Legas.
[32] Janse, M., & Sijmen, T. (2003). Language death and language maintenance: Theoretical, practical and descriptive approaches. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
[33] Jedwab, J. (2000). Ethnic identification and heritage languages in Canada. Montréal: éditions Images.
[34] Johnson, M. (2006). A sharper view: Evaluating the vitality of official language minority communities. Ottawa: Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages.
[35] Klymasz, R. B., & Tarasoff, K. J. (1995). Spirit wrestlers: Centennial papers in honour of Canada’s Doukhobor heritage. Ottawa: Canadian Museum of Civilization.
[36] Levi-Strauss, C. (1963). Language and the analysis of social laws. In B. Blount (Ed.), Language, culture and society: A book of readings (2nd ed., pp. 143-152). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
[37] Manning, P. E. (2005). Dedicating the past: Doukhobor caves part of historic settlement. Saskatoon Sun, Sunday, 28 August.
[38] Migus, P. M. (1975). Sounds Canadian: Languages and cultures in multi-ethnic society. Toronto: Martin.
[39] Newman, M. (1990). Men artists. Biographical dictionary of Saskatchewan artists. Saskatoon: Fifth House Publishers.
[40] Oreopoulos, P. (2005). Canadian compulsory school law and their impact on educational attainment and future earnings. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
[41] Pendakur, R. (1990). Speaking in tongues: Heritage language maintenance and transfer in Canada. Eric: ED339214.
[42] Rhoads, J. E. (1960). A day with the Doukohobors: An interesting account of a visit to the Russian settlement in Saskatchewan. Philadelphia: William H. Pile’s Sons.
[43] Robertson, S. (1994). Diverse exhibit fits purpose of the Kenderdine Gallery. The Saskatoon Star Phoenix, June 1994.
[44] Rak, J. (2001). Doukhobor autobiography as witness narrative. Biography, 24, 226-241. doi:10.1353/bio.2001.0020
[45] Rak, J. (2004). One hybrid discourse of Doukhobor identity: The freedomite diary from Agassiz prison. In D. Beneventi, L. Canton, & L. Moyes (Eds.), Adjacencies: Minority writing in Canada. Toronto: Guernica.
[46] Rak, J. Annotated Doukhobor bibliography. URL (last checked 27 July 2012). http://www.ualberta.ca/~jrak/doukhobor_bibliography.htm
[47] Stupnikoff, S. G. (1992). Historical saga of the Doukhobor faith, 17501990s. Saskatoon: Apex Graphics.
[48] Saskatoon Sun (2011). Where did the Doukhobors originate? Saskatoon Sun, 20 February 2011, 4.
[49] Schaarschmidt, G. (1995). Aspects of the History of Doukhobor Russian. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 27, 197-204.
[50] Schaarschmidt, G. (2005). Four norms-one culture: Doukhobor Russian in Canada. In R. Muhr (Ed.), Standardvariationen und Sprachideologien in verschiedenen Sprachkulturen der Welt. Standard Variations and Language Ideologies in different Language Cultures around the World (pp. 137-150). Wien: Peter Lang Verlag.
[51] Schaarschmidt, G. (2008). The ritual language of the British Columbia Doukhobors as an endangered functional style: Issues of interference and translatability. Canadian Slavonic Papers, 50, 102-122.
[52] Schaarschmidt, G. (2012). Doukhobor internal and external migrations: Effects on language development and structure. In: V. Makarova (Ed.), Russian language studies in North America (pp. 235-260). London: Anthem Press.
[53] Statistics Canada. URL (last checked 27 July 2012). http://www.statcan.gc.ca/start-debut-eng.html
[54] Sulerzhitsky, L. A. (1982). To America with the Doukhobors. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center.
[55] Tarasoff, K. J. (2002). Spirit wrestlers: Doukhobor pioneers’ strategies for living. Brooklyn, NY: Spirit Wrestlers Publishing.
[56] Tracie, C. J. (1996). Toil and peaceful life: Dukhobor village settlement in Saskatchewan, 1899-1918. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center.
[57] Waiser, B. (2005). Saskatchewan: A New history. Calgary, Alberta: The Fifths House.
[58] Wilkin, K. (1977). William Perehudoff. Art International, 21, 16.
[59] Wilson, P. (2010). Doukhobor tradition carries on one loaf at a time. The Star Phoenix. URL (last checked 27 July 2012). http://www2.canada.com/saskatoonstarphoenix/news/third_page/story.html?id=7423d822-72ac-47e6-8770-6f35cd33ad1d&p=2

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.