An Integrated Approach to Groundwater Exploration Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System


In this study, an integrated approach was implemented using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing technique for locating promising areas for groundwater exploration. This method is based evaluating a set of hydrological, geological and topographical parameters that influence the natural occurrence of groundwater. As a result, a ground water potential map (GPM) was generated by modeling these parameters. Groundwater potential map results were classified into three classes that describe the potentiality of each cell in the study area for groundwater exploration. These classes are; high, moderate and low groundwater potential area. It was found that about 7% of the study was classified as high potential areas which were found to be concentrated in the western part of the study area. About 79% of the study was classified as moderate potential for groundwater exploration. The rest of the study area (14%) was classified as low potential areas and concentrated in northeast and southeast part of the study area. These results were verified against existing well data and field observations. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of each parameter on the overall groundwater map using the effective weight and variation index. It was found that the slope parameter was the most effective among the five used parameters in the model.

Share and Cite:

N. Hammouri, A. El-Naqa and M. Barakat, "An Integrated Approach to Groundwater Exploration Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2012, pp. 717-724. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.49081.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] MWI (Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Jordan), 2010.
[2] MWI (Ministry of Water and Irrigation), “Water for Life: Jordan’s Water Strategy 2008-2022,” Amman, 2009.
[3] AARC (Al-Urdun Al-jaded Research Center), “The State of Environment in Jordan,” Annual Report, 2001.
[4] E. Salameh and H. Bannayan, “Water Resources in Jordan, Present Status and Future Potentials,” Friedrich Ebert Steftung, Amman, 1993.
[5] Ph. Duatartre, J. M. Coudert and G. Delpont, “Evolution in the Use of Satellite Data for the Location and Development of Groundwater,” Advances in Space Research, Vol. 13, No. 5, 1993, pp. 187-195.
[6] R. M. Teeuw, “Groundwater Exploration Using Remote Sensing and a Low-Cost Geographical Information Sys- tem,” Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1995, pp. 21-30. doi:10.1007/s100400050057
[7] B. Chandhary, B. Kumar, K. Saroha, G. Yadar, M. Singh, A. Sharma, M. Pandey and P. Singh, “Integrated Ground- water Resources Mapping in Gurgoan District (Haryana) India, Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques,” 2001.
[8] H.-J. Oh, Y.-S. Kim, J.-K. Choi, E. Park and S. Lee, “GIS Mapping of Regional Probabilistic Groundwater Potential in the Area of Pohang City, Korea,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 399, 2011, pp. 158-172. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.12.027
[9] S. Ganapuram, G. T. Vijaya Kumar, M. Krishna, E. Kahya, M. Cüneyd Demirel, “Mapping of Groundwater Potential Zones in the Musi Basin Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS,” Advances in Engineering Software, Vol. 40, No. 7, 2009, pp. 506-518. doi:10.1016/j.advengsoft.2008.10.001
[10] A. El-Naqa, N. Hammouri, K. Ibrahim and M. El-Taj, “Integrated Approach for Groundwater Exploration in WadiAraba Using Remote Sensing and GIS,” Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2009.
[11] S. Mukherjee, “Role of Satellite Sensors in Groundwater Exploration,” Sensors, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2008, pp. 2006- 2016. doi:10.3390/s8032006
[12] D. Jaser, “The Geology of Khan EzZabib Area,” Bulletin 3, Geology Directorate, Natural Resources Authority, Amman, 1986.
[13] NRA (Natural Resources Authority), “Khan EzZabib Map Sheet 3253 III Scale 1:50000,” Bulletin 3, NRA, National Geological Mapping Project, Amman, 1986.
[14] K. A. Musa, A. Juhari Mat and I. Abdullah, “Ground- water Prediction Potential Zone in Langat Basin Using the Integration of Remote Sensing and GIS,” The 21st Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, Taipei, 4-8 December 2000.
[15] A. Sener, A. Davraz and M. Ozcelik, “An Integration of GIS and Remote Sensing in Groundwater Investigations: A Case Study in Burdur, Turkey,” Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 13, No. 5-6, 2005, pp. 826-834. doi:10.1007/s10040-004-0378-5
[16] Sawarieh, “Heat Sources of the Groundwater in the Zara-ZarqaMa’in-Jiza Area, Central Jordan,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Karlsruhe, 2005.
[17] R. C. Gogu and A. Dassargues, “Sensitivity Analysis for the EPIK Method of Vulnerability Assessment in a Small Karstic Aquifer, Southern Belgium,” Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2000, pp. 337-345.
[18] P. Napolitano and A. G. Fabbri, “Single Parameter Sensitivity Analysis for Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Using DRASTIC and SINTACS,” Proceedings of the 2nd HydroGIS Conference: International Association of Hydrological Sciences, IAHS Publication 235, 1996, pp. 559-566.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.