Fungal Isolate “KMI” Is a New Type of Orchid Mycorrhizal Fungus


We analyzed an isolate of fungus that seems to be a new type orchid mycorrhizal fungus, “KMI (refers to Kyoto-Ma- tsubara-Ishii)”, obtained from the roots of Paphiopedilum thailandense Fowl. KMI has hyphal branching into right angle similar to Rhizoctonia-like fungi, but its spore formation resembled Nectoria, which is known as a teleomorph of Fusarium rather than Rhizoctonia. Its ribosomal DNA sequences of 18S and ITS have no similarity with any known fungal species. Proteins in molecular weight of 53 and 24 kDa, which are common to mycorrhizal fungi, were detected in KMI. When KMI was inoculated onto orchids, however it didn’t form pelotons or coils, but the hyphae in the root tissues were observed and the tissues were not decayed. No significant symptoms of Rhizoctonia or Fusarium disease, however, were developed on tomato and cucumber plants. The evidences suggest that KMI is a new type of orchid mycorrhizal fungus.

Share and Cite:

T. Matsubara, M. Yoneda and T. Ishii, "Fungal Isolate “KMI” Is a New Type of Orchid Mycorrhizal Fungus," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 8, 2012, pp. 1121-1126. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.38135.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] N. Bernard, “Recherches Experimentales sur les Orchidees,” Revue Générale de Botanique, Vol. 16, 1904, pp. 405-451, 458-476.
[2] R. S. Currah and C. Zelmer, “A Key and Notes for the Genera of Fungi Mycorrhizal with Orchids and a New Species in the Genus Epulorhiza,” Reports of Tottori Mycological Institute, Vol. 30, 1992, pp. 43-59.
[3] S. Kusano, “Gastrodia Elata and Its Symbiotic Association with Armillaria Mellea,” Journal of the College of Agriculture, Vol. 4, 1911, pp. 1-66.
[4] M. Hamada, “Studien über die Mykorrhiza von Galeola Septentrionalis Reichb. F—Ein neuer Fall der Mykorrhiza-Bildung Durch Intraradicale Rhizomorpha,” Japanese Journal of Botany, Vol. 10, 1939, pp. 151-211.
[5] E. O. Campbell, “The Mycorrhiza of Gastrodia Cunninghamii Hook. F,” Transactions of the Royal Society New Zealand, Botany, Vol. 1, 1962, pp. 289-296.
[6] T. J. White, T. Bruns, S. Lee and J. W. Taylor, “Amplification and Direct Sequencing of Fungal Ribosomal RNA genes for Phylogenetics,” In: M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninsky and T. J. White, Eds., PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications, Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1990, pp. 315-322.
[7] T. Ishii, T. Ikeda, K. L. Rutto, A. F. Cruz, I. Matsumoto and K. Kadoya, “Proteins Related to the Mechanism of Symbiosis between Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plants,” Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 68, No. 2, 1999, p. 229.
[8] L. M. Shannon, E. Kay and J. Y. Lew, “Peroxidase Isozymes from Hhorseradish Roots,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 241, No. 9, 1966, pp. 2166-2172.
[9] U. K. Laemmli, “Cleavage of Structural Proteins during Assembly of the Head of Bacteriophage T4,” Nature, Vol. 227, No. 5259, 1970, pp. 680-685. Hdoi:10.1038/227680a0
[10] T. Ishii and S. Horii, “Establishment of Axenic Cultural Techniques of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi,” Horticultural Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2007, p. 136.
[11] J. M. Phillips and D. S. Hayman, “Improved Procedures for Clearing and Staining Parasitic and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi for Rapid Assessment of Infection,” Transactions of the British Mycological Society, Vol. 55, No. 1, 1970, pp. 158-161. Hdoi:10.1016/S0007-1536(70)80110-3
[12] Y. Uetake, A. Ogoshi and S. Hayakawa, “Observation of Teleomorphs of Rhizoctonias (Thanatephorus orchidicola and Tulasnella deliquescens) Isolated from Orchids,” Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1999, pp. 121-125.
[13] V. Vujanovic, M. St-Arnaud, D. Barabé and G. Thibeault, “Viability Testing of Orchid Seed and the Promotion of Colouration and Germination,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 86, No. 1, 2000, pp.79-86. Hdoi:10.1006/anbo.2000.1162
[14] J. M. U’Ren, J. W. Dalling, R. E. Gallery, D. R. Maddison, E. C. Davis, C. M. Gibson and A. E. Arnold, “Diversity and Evolutionary Origins of Fungi Associated with Seeds of a Neotropical Pioneer Tree: A Case Study for Analysing Fungal Environmental Samples,” Mycological Research, Vol. 113, No. 4, 2009, pp. 432-449.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.