Measuring the antioxidative activities of Queso Fresco after post-packaging high-pressure processing


Some milk-associated proteins are known to be nutritionally valuable and form bioactive peptides that exhibit activity against hypertension and oxidative stress. Consumption of cheeses, such as the popular Hispanic-style cheese Queso Fresco (QF), may be a vehicle for delivery of these milk-associated peptides. This paper describes the effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) on the antioxidative activity (ORAC- FL value) of water-soluble proteins extracted from QF samples. QFs were manufactured according to a commercial-make procedure using pasteurized, homogenized milk, without added starter cultures. The cheese was cut into 45 × 45 × 150 mm3 blocks, double packaged in vacuum bags, and received the following HPP treatments: 200, 400, or 600 MPa for either 0, 5, 10, or 20 min, with warming to an internal temperature of either 22℃ or 40℃ prior to HPP treatment. Results show that the core temperature of the cheese during HPP directly affects the ORAC-FL value. The activities of the lower temperature cheeses are independent of time and pressure, and have a median ORAC-FL value of 27 trolox equivalents (TE). The higher temperature cheeses have higher ORAC-FL values ranging from 21.5 to 96.0 TE; the highest activity corresponded to the cheese held at 400 MPa for the longest time under pressure (20 min). The 600 MPa cheeses increase in activity with increasing time under pressure, but are less active than the control cheese. These results indicate that processing temperature and pressure are important factors in the antioxidative activity of these QF samples and further understanding of the roles of these variables may lead to the manufacture of healthier and more nutritious cheeses and dairy products.

Share and Cite:

Paul, M. , Brewster, J. , Hekken, D. and Tomasula, P. (2012) Measuring the antioxidative activities of Queso Fresco after post-packaging high-pressure processing. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 3, 297-303. doi: 10.4236/abb.2012.34042.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Hasler, C.M. (2002) Functional foods: Benefit, concerns and challenges—A position paper from the American council on science and health. The Journal of Nutrition, 132, 3772-3781.
[2] Gad, A.S., Khadrawy, Y.A., El-Nekeety, A.A., Mohamed, S.R., Hassan, N.S. and Abdel-Wahhab, M.A. (2011) Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of whey protein and Spirulina in rats. Nutrition, 27, 582-589. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2010.04.002
[3] Andre, C.M., La-rondelle, Y. and Evers, D. (2010) Dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress from a human and plant perspective: A review. Current Nutrition and Food Science, 6, 2-12. doi:10.2174/157340110790909563
[4] Davalos, A., Miguel, M., Bartolome, B. and Lopez-Fandino, R. (2004) Antioxidant activity of peptides derived from egg white proteins by enzymatic hydrolysis. Journal of Food Protection, 67, 1939-1944.
[5] Lim, K., Ma, M. and Dolan, K.D. (2011) Effects of spray drying on antioxidant capacity and anthocyanidin content of blueberry by-products. Journal of Food Science, 76, H156-H164. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02286.x
[6] Hudthagosol, C., Haddad, E.H., McCarthy, K., Wang, P., Oda, K. and Sabate, J. (2011) Pecans acutely increase plasma post-prandial antioxidant capacity and catechins and decrease LDL oxidation in humans. Journal of Nutri- tion, 141, 56-62. doi:10.3945/jn.110.121269
[7] McKay, D.L., Chen, C.Y., Yeum, K.J., Matthan, N.R., Lichtenstein, A.H. and Blumberg, J.B. (2010) Chronic and acute effects of walnuts on antioxidant capacity and nutritional status in humans: A randomized, cross-over pilot study. Nutrition Journal, 9, 21. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-21
[8] Heber, D. and Bo-werman, S. (2001) Applying science to changing dietary patterns. Journal of Nutrition, 131, 3078S- 3081S.
[9] Saiga, A., Tanabe, S. and Nishimura, T. (2003) Antioxidant activity of peptides obtained from porcine myofibrillar proteins by protease treatment. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 3661-3667. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-21
[10] Shahidi, F. and Ama-rowicz, R. (1996) Antioxidant activ- ity of protein hy-drolyzates from aquatic species. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 73, 1197-1199.
[11] Korhonen, H. (2009) Milk-derived bioactive peptides: From science to applications. Journal of Functional Foods, 1, 177-187. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2009.01.007
[12] Hernandez-Ledesma, B., Davalos, A., Bartolome, B. and Amigo, L. (2005) Preparation of antioxidant enzymatic hydrolysates from α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. Identification of active peptides by HPLC-MS/MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 588-593. doi:10.1021/jf048626m
[13] Salami, M., Moosa-vi-Movahedi, A.A., Ehsani, M.R., You-sefi, R., Haertle, T., Chobert, J.M., Razavi, S.H., Henrich, R., Balalaie, S., Ebadi, S.A., Pourtakdoost, S. and Niasari-Naslaji A. (2010) Improvement of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of camel and bovine whey proteins by limited proteolysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 3297-3302. doi:10.1021/jf9033283
[14] Sreeramulu, D. and Raghunath, M. (2011) Antioxidant and phenolic content of nuts, oil seeds, milk and milk products com-monly consumed in India. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2, 422-427. doi:10.4236/fns.2011.25059
[15] Paul, M. and Van Hekken, D.L. (2011) Short communi- cation: Assessing antihypertensive activity in native and model Queso Fresco cheeses. Journal of Dairy Science, 94, 2280-2284. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3852
[16] Torres-Llanez, M.J., Gonzalez-Cordova, A.F., Hernandez- Mendoza, A., Garcia, H.S. and Vallejo-Cordoba, B. (2011) Angioten-sin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity in Mexi- can Fresco cheese. Journal of Dairy Science, 94, 3794- 3800. doi:10.3168/jds.2011-4237
[17] Guo, L., Van Hekken, D.L., Tomasula, P.M., Shieh, J. and Tunick, M.H. (2011) Effect of salt on the chemical, functional, and rheological properties of Queso Fresco during storage. International Dairy Journal, 21, 352-357. doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2010.12.009
[18] Tunick, M.H., Malin, E.L., Smith, P.W. and Holsinger, V.H. (1995) Effects of skim milk homogenization on proteolysis and rheology of Mozzarella cheese. International Dairy Journal, 5, 483-491. doi:10.1016/0958-6946(95)00026-Y
[19] Ou, B., Hampsch-Woodill, M. and Prior, R.L. (2001) Development and validation of an improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 4619-4626. doi:10.1021/jf010586o
[20] Davalos, A., Gomez-Cordoves, C. and Bartolome, B. (2004) Extending applicability of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC-Fluorescein) assay. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 48-54. doi:10.1021/jf0305231
[21] SAS Institute (1999) SAS/STAT user’s guide. Version 8, SAS Institute Inc., Cary.
[22] Blando, F., Gerardi, C. and Nicoletti, I. (2004) Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L) anthocyanins as ingredients for functional foods. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2004, 253-258. doi:10.1155/S1110724304404136
[23] Bolling, B.W., Blumberg, J.B. and Chen, C.Y. (2009) Extraction methods determine the antioxidant capacity and induction of quinone reductase by soy products in vitro. Food Chemistry, 116, 351-355. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.01.087
[24] Crozier, S.J., Preston, A.G., Hurst, J.W., Payne, M.J., Mann, J., Hainly, L. and Miller, D.L. (2011) Cacao seeds are a “Super Fruit”: A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products. Chemistry Central Journal, 5, 5. doi:10.1186/1752-153X-5-5
[25] Tijerina-Saenz, A., In-nis, S.M. and Kitts, D.D. (2009) An- tioxidant capacity of human milk and its association with vitamins A and E and fatty acid composition. Acta Pae- diatrica, 98, 1793-1798. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01437.x
[26] Chen, J., Lindmark-Mansson, H., Gorton, L. and Akesson, B. (2003) Antioxidant capacity of bovine milk as assayed by spectrophotometric and amperometric methods. Inter- national Dairy Journal, 13, 927-935. doi:10.1016/S0958-6946(03)00139-0
[27] Clausen, M.R., Skibsted, L.H. and Stagsted, J. (2009) Char- acterization of major radical scavenger species in bovine milk through size exclusion chromatography and functional assays. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 2912-2919. doi:10.1021/jf803449t
[28] Ostdal, H., An-dersen, H.J. and Nielsen, J.H. (2000) Antioxidative activity of urate in bovine milk. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 5588-5592. doi:10.1021/jf000658w
[29] Huppertz, T., Fox, P.F. and Kelly, A.L. (2004) High pressure treatment of bovine milk: Effects on casein micelles and whey proteins. Journal of Dairy Research, 71, 97- 106. doi:10.1017/S002202990300640X
[30] Needs, E.C., Stenning, R.A., Gill, A.L., Ferragut, V. and Rich, G.T. (2000) High-pressure treatment of milk: Effects on casein micelle structure and on enzymic coagulation. Journal of Dairy Research, 67, 31-42. doi:10.1017/S0022029999004021
[31] Huppertz, T., Fox, P.F., de Kruif, K.G. and Kelly, A.L. (2006) High pressure-induced changes in bovine milk proteins: A re-view. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1764, 593-598. doi:10.1016/j.bbapap.2005.11.010
[32] Ismail, B. and Nielsen, S.S. (2010) Invited review: Plasmin protease in milk: Current knowledge and relevance to dairy industry. Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 4999-5009. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3122
[33] Hurley, M., Larsen, L.B Kelly, A.L. and McSweeney, P.L.H. (2000) The milk acid proteinase cathepsin D: A review. International Dairy Journal, 10, 673-681. doi:10.1016/S0958-6946(00)00100-X
[34] Moatsou, G., Bakopanos, C., Katharios, D., Katsaros, G., Kandarakis, I., Taoukis, P. and Politis, I. (2008) Effect of high-pressure treatment at various temperatures on indigenous proteolytic enzymes and whey protein denaturation in bovine milk. Journal of Dairy Research, 75, 262-269. doi:10.1017/S002202990800321X
[35] Belloque, J., Chicon, R. and Lopez-Fandino, R. (2007) Unfolding and refolding of β-lactoglobulin subjected to high hydrostatic pressure at different pH values and temperatures and its influence on proteolysis. Journal of Agricul- tural and Food Chemistry, 55, 5282-5288. doi:10.1021/jf070170w
[36] Wu, X., Beecher, G.R., Holden, J.M., Haytowitz, D.B., Gebhardt, S.E. and Prior, R.L. (2004) Lipophilic and Hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 4026-4037. doi:10.1021/jf049696w

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.