Study of the Effect of Himreen Dam on the Phytoplankton Diversity in Dyala River, Iraq


In present study three stations are located on Diyala River has been investigated to study phytoplankton community, the first station was located in jalawlaa area, second station in Himreen impoundment, while the third station is located after the Himreen Dam in Al-Soddur area, A total 134 taxa of Phytoplankton were identified during the study period, 63, 82 and 84 were identified in stations 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The higher density of Phytoplankton observed in station 3, result ranged between 21.16 - 23.88 × 102 cell/l during September and October respectively, then station 2 which has density ranged between 18.44 - 66.188 × 102 cell/l during January and September respectively, while the station 1 has the lowest values during the study comparable to other stations, the result ranged between 5.495 - 70.62 × 102 cell/l during January and April respectively. Species Richness Index ranged from 2.9 - 7.46 in station 1, 4.08 - 7.85 in station 2 and 5.71 - 8.77 in station 3. The result revels that the station 3 show to increase in Richness index value in the most of the months comparable to other stations. The Similarity index also has been calculated among the common species of Phytoplankton through the three station by using the Hierarchical cluster analysis is the highest Similarity percentage in reach in 43.5% for the common species of Phytoplankton between stations 2 and 3.

Share and Cite:

J. Hassany, Z. Zahraw, A. Murtadeh, H. Ali and N. Sulaaiman, "Study of the Effect of Himreen Dam on the Phytoplankton Diversity in Dyala River, Iraq," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 8A, 2012, pp. 940-948. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.328109.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] B. A. Whitton, “River Ecology,” Black Well Scientific Publication, Oxford, 1975.
[2] R. A. Hadi, A. M. Ismail and A. H. Talib, “Check List of the Algae in Dyala River, Iraq,” Um.Salama Science Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2000, pp. 329-345.
[3] A. A. Al-Lami, A. W. Sabri, T. I. Kassim and K. A. Rasheed, “Phytoplankton of Samarra Reservoir, Iraq,” Acta Hydrobiologia, Vol. 38, No. 3-4, 1996, pp. 77-86.
[4] T. I. Kassim, H. A. Al-Saadi, S. K. Salman and R. K. Farhan, “Species Composition and Seasonal Variation of Phytoplankton in Habbaniya Lake, Iraq,” Iraq Journal of Biology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2001, pp. 23-34.
[5] H. A. Al-Saadi, F. M. Hassan and F. M. Alkam, “Phytoplankton and Related Nutrients in Sawa Lake, Iraq,” Journal of Dohuk University, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2008, pp. 67-76.
[6] T. I. Kassim, H. A. Al-Saadi, A. A. Al-Lami and R. K. Farhan, “Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Phytoplankton in Qadisia Lake, Iraq,” The Science Journal of Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Vol. 1, 1999, pp. 99-111.
[7] N. A. Al-Ansari, “Hemreen Reservoir, Geological and Hydrological Investigation,” Journal of Water Resources, Special Publication No. 2, 1987.
[8] H. A. A. Saadalla, “Ecological Study on the Effect of Himreen Impoundment on the Benthic and plankton Invertebrates of River Diyala,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, 1988, 254 p.
[9] R. A. M. Hadi, “Algal studies of the River USK,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cardiff, College Cardiff, 1981, 364 p.
[10] J. E. Furet and K. Benson- Evans, “An Evaluation of the Time Required to Obtain Complete Sedimentation of Fixed Algal Particles Prior to Enumeration,” Journal of British Phycological, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1982, pp. 253-258.
[11] R. Patrick and C. W. Reimer, “The Diatom of the United States,” Vol. 2, Part 1, Philadelphia, Monograph 13, 1975, 213 p.
[12] M. R. Martinez, R. P. Chakroff and J. B. Pantastica, “Note on Direct Phytoplankton Counting Technique Using the Haemocytometer,” Philippine Agricultural, Vol. 59, 1975, pp. 1-12.
[13] H. Germain, “Flora des Diatomees. Diatomophyceae eau Douces et Saumatres du Massif Armoricion et des Contrees Voisines d’Europe Occindentale,” Sciete Nouvelle des Edition, Boubee, Paris, 1981.
[14] F. Hustedt, “The Pennate Diatoms. A Translation of Hustedt′S, Die Kieslalgen,” Strauss and Cramer Gmbh, Germany, 1959, 918 p.
[15] T. V. Desikachary, “Cyanophyta, Indian Council of Agricultural Research,” New Delhi, 1959, 686 p.
[16] G. W. Prescott, “Algae of the Western Great Lakes Area,” William, C. Brown Co., Publ. Dubuque, Iowa, 1982, 977 p.
[17] R. L. Lowe, “Environmental Requirements and Pollution Tolerance of Freshwater Diatoms,” US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, 1974, 334 p.
[18] L. Campbell, R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, A. Abraham, D. W. Henrichs , C. J. Hyatt and E. J. Buskey, “First Harmful Dinophysis (Dinophyceae, Dinophysiales) Bloom In The U.S. Is Revealed By Automated Imaging Flow Cytometry,” Journal of Phycology, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2010, pp. 66-75. Hdoi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00791.x
[19] A. A. Al-Lami, T. I. Kassim and S. K. Salman, “Phytoplankton of Tigris River, Iraq,” 1st National Scientific Conference in Environmental Pollution and Means of Protection, Baghdad, 5-6 November 2000, pp. 10-20.
[20] H. A. Al-Saadi and A. M. Ismail, “Comparison of Phytoplankton Composition in Artifcial Lake and Tigris River, Middle of Iraq,” Journal of College Education for Women, University of Baghdad, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2001, pp. 105- 112.
[21] F. M. Hassan, R. A. A. Hadi, T. I. Kassim and J. S. Al-Hassany, “Systematic Study of Epiphytic Algal after Restoration of Al-Hawizah Marshes, Southern of Iraq,” International Journal of Aquatic Science, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012, pp. 37-57.
[22] M. Kasim and H. Mukai, “Contribution of Benthic and Epiphytic Diatoms to Clam and Oyster Production in the Akkeshi-Ko Estuary,” Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 62, 2006, pp. 267-281. Hdoi:10.1007/s10872-006-0051-9
[23] J. F. Talling, “Euphrates and Tigris, Mesopotamian Ecology and Desting,” Vol. 38, The Hyge-Boston-London. 1980, pp. 63-86.
[24] B. A. Al-Nimma, “A Study on the Limnology of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers,” M.Sc. Thesis, University of Salahulddin, 1982.
[25] S. K. Salman, T. I. Kassim and H. A. Al-Saadi, “Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Phytoplankton in Hemren lake, Iraq,” Journal of College of Education for Women, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2002, pp. 521-526.
[26] T. I. Kassim, H. A. Al-Saadi and R. K. Farhan, “Vertical Distribution of Phytoplankton in Habbaniya Lake, Iraq,” Marsh Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2006, pp. 19-31.
[27] A. A. M. Al-tamimi, “Using Algae as Bioindicators for Organic Pollution in the Lower Part of Diyala River,” Ph.D. Thesis, Baghdad University, Baghdad, 2006, 208 p.
[28] C. G. Peterson and R. J. Stevenson, “Seasonality in River Phytoplankton: Multivariate Analyses of Data from the Ohio River and Six Kentucky Tributaries,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 182, No. 2, 1989, pp. 99-114. Hdoi:10.1007/BF00006036
[29] A. J. Mclachlan, “Development of Some Lake Ecosystem in Tropical Africa, with Special Reference to the Invertebrates,” Biological Reviews, Vol. 49, 1974, pp. 365-396.
[30] R. M. Baxter “Environmental Effects of Dams and Impoundments” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic, Vol. 8, 1977, pp. 255-283. doi:10.1146/
[31] Y. Y. Tseeb, “On Certian Regulation Features Associated with the Formation of the Hydrobiological Regime in the Kakhovsk Reservoir,” Kakhovsk Reservoir. Tr. Zon. Sov. Tipol. Biol. Rib. Ispol. Vunt. Vod. Younzh. Zony. SSR. 30, 1962, pp. 204-210 (In Russian. Natl. Lend. Libr. Sci. Tech. Translation RTS 2936).
[32] S. Biswas, “The Volta Lake; Some Ecological Observations on the Phytoplankton,” Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie: Verhandlungen, Vol. 17, 1969, pp. 259-272.
[33] A. Compin and R. Cereghion, “Spatial Patterns of Macroinverte-Brate Physical Variables Land-Cover in Southwestern France,” Landscape Ecology, Vol. 22, No. 8, 2007, pp. 1215-1225. Hdoi:10.1007/s10980-007-9101-y
[34] J. S. Levinton, “Marine Biology. Function, Biodiversity, Ecology,” 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, Inc., Oxford, 2001.
[35] E. B. Kratzer, K. J. Jackon, D. B. Arscott, A.K. Aufdenkampe, C. L. Dow, L. A. Kaplan, J. D. Newbold and B. W. Sweeney, “Macroinvertebrate Distribution in Relation to Land Use and Water Chemistry in New York City Drinking-Water-Supply Watersheds,” Journal of North American Benthological Society, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2006, pp. 954-976.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.