Prevalence of Self-Reported Respiratory Symptoms, Asthma and Chronic Bronchitis in Slum Area of a Rapidly Developing Indian City


Background: Poverty is an important surrogate marker for obstructive airway diseases (OAD). Slum constitutes a habitat wherein various poverty related parameters are perpetually prevalent in the ambience. 1/6th of world population lives in slums yet there is no information regarding their health status in context to asthma and COPD. Aims: We investigated the prevalence of asthma and chronic-bronchitis symptoms and associated risk-factors in slum habitats of Pune city. Methodology: 7062 adult slum-dwellers living in 12 slums of Pune city were cross-sectionally interviewed by local healthcare workers with respiratory health questionnaire which was designed using respiratory symptoms of validated European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II) questionnaire and International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) bronchial symptoms questionnaire. Results: The overall prevalence of selfreported asthma symptoms was 10% (18 - 40 years: 6.5%; >40 years: 13.5%). The overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 8.5% [18 - 40 years: 7% (males: 7%, females: 7%); >40 years: 10% (males: 10%, females: 10%)]. Increasing age (p = 0.00), female gender (p = 0.001), unemployment (0.00) current smoking (p = 0.00) and ex-smoking (p = 0.004) emerged as significant risk factor for asthma. While, ex-smoking (p = 0.004) and low-education status (p = 0.00) emerged as significant risk factors for chronic bronchitis. Conclusion: In slums reporting of asthma and chronic-bronchitis symptoms was much higher than what has been reported earlier from India. Asthma was commonly seen in females, old age, unemployed and ever-smokers. While chronic bronchitis was commonly seen in ex-smokers and illiterate subjects. Chronic bronchitis was equally distributed amongst male and females, despite 0% prevalence of smoking in females.

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B. Brashier, J. Londhe, S. Madas, V. Vincent and S. Salvi, "Prevalence of Self-Reported Respiratory Symptoms, Asthma and Chronic Bronchitis in Slum Area of a Rapidly Developing Indian City," Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2012, pp. 73-81. doi: 10.4236/ojrd.2012.23011.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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