='../reference/referencespapers.aspx?referenceid=493851' target='_blank'>34] National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) (2011) Record of climatological observations for Alberta Ford Forest Center. URL (last checked 20 June 2011). http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/stationlocator.html [35] Neuendorff, J. K., Nagel, L. M., Webster, C. R., & Janowiak, M. K. (2007). Stand structure and composition in a northern hardwood forest after 40 years of single-tree selection. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 24, 197-202. [36] Nyland, R. D. (1996). Silviculture concepts and applications. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.. [37] Oliver, C. D., & Larson, B. C. (1996). Forest stand dynamics: Update edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [38] Paillet, Y., Bergès, L., Hj?ltén, ódor, P., Avon, C., Bernhardt-R?mermann, M., Bijlsma, R. et al. (2009). Biodiversity differences between managed and unmanaged forests: Meta-analysis of species richness in Europe. Conservation Biology, 24, 101-112. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01399.xPMid:20121845 [39] R Development Core Team (2009). R: A language environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. [40] Reed, D. D., Holmes, M. J., & Johnson, J. A. (1986). A 22-year study of stand development and financial return in northern hardwoods. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 3, 35-38. [41] Scheiner, S., & Istock, C. A. (1994). Species enrichment in a transitional landscape, northern lower Michigan. Canadian Journal of Botany, 72, 217-225. doi:10.1139/b94-030 [42] Scheller, R. M., & Mladenoff, D. J. (2002). Understory species patterns and diversity in old-growth and managed northern hardwood forests. Ecological Application, 12, 1329-1343. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2002)012[1329:USPADI]2.0.CO;2 [43] Schwartz, J. W., Nagel, L. M., & Webster, C. R. (2005).The effects of uneven-aged management on diameter distribution and species composition of northern hardwoods in upper Michigan. Forest Ecology and Management, 211, 356-370. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2005.02.054 [44] Shields, J. M., & Webster, C. R. (2007). Ground-layer response to group selection with legacy-tree retention in a managed northern hardwood forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 37, 17971807. doi:10.1139/X07-052 [45] Stearns, F. W. (1997). History of the Lakes States forests: natural and human impacts. In J. M. Webster (Ed.), Lake States Regional Forest Resources Assessment: Technical Papers (pp. 8-29). USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NC-189. [46] Thompson, K., & Band, S. R. (1997). Survival of a lowland heathland seed bank after a 33-year burial. Seed Science Research, 7, 409-411. doi:10.1017/S0960258500003822 [47] Tubbs, C. H. (1977). Manager’s handbook for northern hardwoods in North Central States. 29. US Forest Service General Technical Re-port NC-39, St. Paul, MN: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. URL (last checked 27 March 2011). htp://plants.usda.gov [48] van der Maarel, E., & Martin, S. T. (1993). Small-scale plant species turnover in a limestone grassland: The carousel model and some comments on the niche concept. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4548, 179-188. [49] Wolf, A. T., Parker, L., Fewless, G., Corio, K., Sundance, J., Howe, R., & Gentry, H. (2008). Impacts of summer versus winter logging on understory vegetation in the Chequamegon-Nicolet Forest. Forest Ecology Management, 254, 35-45. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2007.07.024 [50] Whitney, G. G., & Foster, D. R. (1988). Overstory composition and age as determinants of the understory flora of woods of central New England. Journal of Ecology, 76, 867-876. doi:10.2307/2260578 [51] Whittaker, R. H. (1967) Gradient analysis of vegetation. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society (London), 49, 207264. [52] Williams, M. (1989). Americans and their forests: A historical geography. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

  
comments powered by Disqus
OJF Subscription
E-Mail Alert
OJF Most popular papers
Publication Ethics & OA Statement
OJF News
Frequently Asked Questions
Recommend to Peers
Recommend to Library
Contact Us

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.