} }; xhrj.open('POST', encodeURI(sUrl), bAsync); xhrj.setRequestHeader('Content-Type', 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'); xhrj.send(sArgs); }, get: function (sUrl, bAsync, fCallBack, errmsg) { var xhrj = this.init(); xhrj.onreadystatechange = function () { if (xhrj.readyState == 4) { if (xhrj.responseText) { if (fCallBack.constructor == Function) { fCallBack(xhrj); } } else { } } }; xhrj.open('GET', encodeURI(sUrl), bAsync); xhrj.send('Null'); } } function RndNum(n) { var rnd = ""; for (var i = 0; i < n; i++) rnd += Math.floor(Math.random() * 10); return rnd; } function SetNum(item) { var url = "//www.scirp.org/journal/senddownloadnum.aspx"; var args = "paperid=" + item; url = url + "?" + args + "&rand=" + RndNum(4); window.setTimeout("show('" + url + "')", 3000); } function show(url) { var callback = function (xhrj) { } ajaxj.get(url, true, callback, "try"); } // function SetNumTwo(item) { // alert("jinlia"); // var url = "../userInformation/PDFLogin.aspx"; // var refererrurl = document.referrer; // var downloadurl = window.location.href; // var args = "PaperID=" + item + "&RefererUrl=" + refererrurl + "&DownloadUrl="+downloadurl; // url = url + "?" + args + "&rand=" + RndNum(4); // //// window.setTimeout("show('" + url + "')", 500); // } // function pdfdownloadjudge() { // $("a").each(function(index) { // var rel = $(this).attr("rel"); // if (rel == "true") { // $(this).removeAttr("onclick"); // $(this).attr("href","#"); // //$(this).bind('click', function() { SetNumTwo(20927)}); // var url = "../userInformation/PDFLogin.aspx"; // var refererrurl = document.referrer; // var downloadurl = window.location.href; // var args = "PaperID=" + 20927 + "&RefererUrl=" + refererrurl + "&DownloadUrl=" + downloadurl; // url = url + "?" + args + "&rand=" + RndNum(4); // // $(this).bind('click', function() { ShowTwo(url)}); // } // }); // } // //获取下载pdf注册的cookie // function getcookie() { // var cookieName = "pdfddcookie"; // var cookieValue = null; //返回cookie的value值 // if (document.cookie != null && document.cookie != '') { // var cookies = document.cookie.split(';'); //将获得的所有cookie切割成数组 // for (var i = 0; i < cookies.length; i++) { // var cookie = cookies[i]; //得到某下标的cookies数组 // if (cookie.substring(0, cookieName.length + 2).trim() == cookieName.trim() + "=") {//如果存在该cookie的话就将cookie的值拿出来 // cookieValue = cookie.substring(cookieName.length + 2, cookie.length); // break // } // } // } // if (cookieValue != "" && cookieValue != null) {//如果存在指定的cookie值 // return false; // } // else { // // return true; // } // } // function ShowTwo(webUrl){ // alert("22"); // $.funkyUI({url:webUrl,css:{width:"600",height:"500"}}); // } //window.onload = pdfdownloadjudge;
JMMCE> Vol.10 No.10, August 2011
Share This Article:
Cite This Paper >>

Studies on the Effect of Ba2+ on Growth, structural, Morphology, Optical, and Mechanical Properties of L-Valinium Picrate

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:338KB) PP. 973-987
DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.1010075    3,225 Downloads   4,263 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment
K. Russel Raj, P. Murugakoothan

Affiliation(s)

PG & Research Department of Physics, Pachaiyappa’s College, Chennai – 600 030, India.

ABSTRACT

Single crystals of undoped (pure) and barium nitrate (Ba (NO3)2)-doped L-Valinium Picrate (LVP) were grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. Morphological changes have been observed when Ba (NO3)2) is doped into LVP crystals. The dopant concentration in the crystals was measured by ICP technique. Slight changes in the unit cell parameter of LVP after doping with Ba (NO3)2) have been detected. The powder X-ray diffraction of the grown crystals has been recorded and the various planes of reflection identified shows shift in the peak positions. FTIR and UV spectra reveal the functional group identification and optical property of the grown crystals. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurements revealed that both 5 and 10 mol % of Ba (NO3)2) in LVP enhanced the SHG efficiency by 92.85 and 160.59 times that of KDP respectively. However, at higher concentration, SHG efficiency is not increased but rather decreased from it undoped condition. Microhardness studies show that hardness number (Hv) increased with increase in load for all the grown crystals of this work.

KEYWORDS

A1. Doping; A1. Solutions; A2. Growth from solutions; B2. Nonlinear optic materials.

Cite this paper

K. Raj and P. Murugakoothan, "Studies on the Effect of Ba2+ on Growth, structural, Morphology, Optical, and Mechanical Properties of L-Valinium Picrate," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 10 No. 10, 2011, pp. 973-987. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.1010075.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Prasad, P. N., Williams, D. J., 1991, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Molecules and Polymer, Wiley, New York.
[2] Jiang, M. H., Fang, Q., 1999, Adv. Mater.,Vol, 11, pp. 1147
[3] Agarwal, M. D., Choi, J., Wang, W. S., Bhat, K., Lal, R. B., Shields, A. D., Penn, B. G., Frazier, D. V.,1999, J. Cryst. Growth, Vol. 179, pp. 2004.
[4] Jiang, M., Xu, D., Tan, Z., 1983, Acta. Chem. Syn., Vol.41, pp570.
[5] Ding, Y. J., Mu, X., Gu, X.,2000, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater, Vol. 9 pp. 21.
[6] Kityk, I. V., MakowskaJanusik, M., Gondek, E., Krzeminska, L., Daniel, A., Plucinski, K. J., Benet, S., and Sahraoui, B., 2004, J. Phys: Cond. Matter, Vol.16 pp. 231.
[7] Bhavannarayana, G., Budakoti,G. C., Maurya, K. K., Kumar, B., 2005, J. Cryst. Growth, Vol. 282 pp. 394 - 401.
[8] Chen Jianzhong, Lin Sukun, Yang Fengtu, Wang Jiahe, and Lang Jianming, 1997, J. Cryst. Growth, Vol. 179, pp. 226.
[9] Kuznetsov, V. A., Oknrimenko, T. M., Miroslawa Rak, 1998, J. Cryst. Growth, Vol. 193, pp. 164.
[10] Guohui Li, Xue Liping, Genbosu, Xinxin Zhuang, Zhengdong Li, and Youping He., J. Cryst. Growth, 2005, Vol. 274, pp 555.
[11] Krishan Lal, and Bhagavannarayana, G., 1989, J. Appl. Cryst, Vol. 22, pp. 209-215.
[12] Bhagavannarayana, G., and Kushwaha, S. K., 2010, J. Appl. Cryst, Vol. 43. pp.154-162.
[13] Kurtz, S. K., Perry, T. T., 1968, J. Appl. Phys, Vol. 39. Pp. 3798-3813.
[14] Anitha, K., Sridhar, B., and Raja ram, R. K., 2004, Acta Cryst, Vol. E60. pp.1530.
[15] Podder, J., Ramalingom, S., Narayana Kalkura, S., 2001, Cryst. Res. Techno, Vol. 36.pp. 549- 556.
[16] Jiang, X. N., Xu, D., Yuan, D. R., Lu, M. K., Sun, D. L., 2002, Cryst. Res. Technol, Vol. 6. Pp. 564 – 569.
[17] Lee et al, W. T., 1999, J. Phys; Condens. Matter, Vol. 11. Pp. 7385-7410.
[18] Novotny, J. Proceeding of SPIE. Vol. 4710. Int. Conf. Thermo sense, April. 2002, XXIV. pp. 1-4. Orlando, FL, USA.
[19] Rak, M., Eremin, N. N., Eremina, T. A., Kuznetsov, V. A., Ohkrimenko, T. M., Furmanova, N. G., and Efremova, E. P., 2005, J. Cryst. Growth, Vol. 273. pp. 577.
[20] Martin Britto Dhass., and Natarajan, S., 2008, Cryst. Res. Technol, Vol. 43.No. 8, 869 - 873
[21] Anitha, K., Sridhar, B., and Raja ram, R. K., 2004, Acta Cryst, Vol. E60. pp. o1530 – o1532.
[22] Socrates, G., 2001, Infrared and Raman Characteristic Group Frequencies, 3rd ed. New York.
[23] Daniel R Palleros, 2000, Experimental Organic Chemistry, University of California, and Santa Cruz. John Wikley & sons Inc. pp. 690-692.
[24] Socrates, G., 1980, Infrared and Characteristic Group Frequencies, John Wiley & sons: Singapore.
[25] Devis, E. A., Mott, N. F., Philos. Mag, Vol. 22. pp. 903.
[26] Lakshanana Perumal, C. K., Arulchakkaravathi, A., Prajesh, N., Santharaghavan,P., Ramasamy, P., 2002, Mat. Lett, Vol. 56. pp. 578.
[27] Pal, T., Kar, T., Boceli, G., Rigi, L., 2004, Crystal Growth Des, Vol. 4. pp. 743-747.
[28] Hall, S. R., Kolinsky, P. V., Jones, R., Allen, S., Gordon, P., Boshwell, B., Norman, P. A., Hursthouse, M., Karaulov, A., Baldwin, J., 1986, J.Crystal. Growth. 79. pp. 745.
[29] Thompson, W. H., Blanchard-Desce, M., Muller, A. J., Fort, A., Barzovkan, M., Hynes, J. T., 1999, J. Phys. Chem. Vol. A 103. pp. 3766.
[30] Shen, Y., 1984, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics, Wiley, New York.
[31] Hall, S. R., Kolinsky, P. V., Jones, R., Allen, S., Gorden, P., Boshwell, B., Bloor, D., Norman, A., J. Baldwin, 1986, J. Crystal. Growth. Vol. 79. pp. 745-751.
[32] Wang, Y., Eatus, D. F., 1985, Chem. Phy. Lett, Vol. 120. pp. 441-444.

  
comments powered by Disqus
JMMCE Subscription
E-Mail Alert
JMMCE Most popular papers
Publication Ethics & OA Statement
JMMCE News
Frequently Asked Questions
Recommend to Peers
Recommend to Library
Contact Us

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.