Coag-Flocculation Studies of Afzelia Bella Coagulant (ABC) in Coal Effluent Using Single and Simulated Multi Angle Nephelometry

DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.103019   PDF   HTML     4,049 Downloads   5,336 Views   Citations


Following the need for the use of environmentally friendly, renewable resource in industrial processes, this work explores the potential of an effective application in pilot scale of Afzelia bella seed as a coag-flocculant. The study evaluates the coag-flocculation efficiency and functional kinetic parameter response to varying pH and dosage of coal washery effluent and ABC respectively. The maximum coag-flocculation performance is recorded at rate constant, K of 3.3333 x 10-3m3/kg.s, dosage of (0.3 and 0.2kg/m3); pH of 2 and coagulation period, τ1/2of 28.1216 s while the minimum is recorded at K of 1.6667 x 10-4m3/kg.s, dosage of 0.2kg/m3, pH of 10 and τ1/2 of 562.365 s. The least value of coag-flocculation efficiency, E (%)>89.00. Simulated and unsimulated values of rate constants Ks and K respectively are in close agreement, validating the concept of perikinetics. The potential of ABC as an effective organic coag-flocculant has been established. The results confirm that theory of rapid coagflocculation holds for the aggregation of coal washery effluent using ABC and at the conditions of the experiment.

Share and Cite:

M. Menkiti and O. Onukwuli, "Coag-Flocculation Studies of Afzelia Bella Coagulant (ABC) in Coal Effluent Using Single and Simulated Multi Angle Nephelometry," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 10 No. 3, 2011, pp. 279-298. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.103019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ma, J.J., Li, G., Chen, G.R., Xu, G.O., and Cai, G.Q., 2001, “Enhanced coagulation of surface waters with high organic content by permanganate perooxidation” Water science and Technology: Water Supply,Vol 1,pp. 51-61
[2] Diterlizzi, S.D., 1994, Introduction to Coagulation and Flocculation of Waste water, Environmental System Project, U.S.A ,pp 1-4.
[3] Edzwald, J.K.,1987, “Coagulation – sedimentation filtration process for removing organic substances in drinking and waste water.”,Noyes Data Corporation ,Park Bridge ,New Jersey, pp 26-27.
[4] O’Meila C.R., 1978, Coagulation in waste water treatment : The scientific basis of flocculation (NATO Advanced study Inst. Series E, Appl.Sc.No 27), In : Sijtholf and Noordhoff,Alpenan den Rijn, pp 219-268, (Ives ,K.J., Ed.),Netherlands.
[5] Jin, Y., 2005, Use of high Resolution Photographic Technique for studying Coagulation/flocculation in water treatment, M.Sc thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
[6] Ezeagu I E, Metges C.C, Proll .J, Petzke K.J, and Akinsoyinu A.O, 2006, Chemical composition and nutritive value of some wild gathered tropical plant seeds; Deutscher Akademischer Austaischdienst, German Institute for Human Nutrition Bonn Germany.pp3-4
[7] Hunter, R.J., 1993; Introduction to Modern Colloid Science, Oxford University Press, New York,pp 33-38;289-290
[8] Thomas, D.N., Judd, S.J., and Fawcett, N., 1999; “ Flocculation modeling: A review”. Water Resources, Vol 33, pp. 1579-1592.
[9] Swift, D.L., and Friedlander, S.K., 1964, “The coagulation of hydrolysis by Brownian motion and laminar shear flow.” Journal of Colloid Science, Vol 19, Pp 621.
[10] Von Smoluchowski, M., 1917; “Versucheiner Mathematischen Theorie der Koagulations Kinetic Kolloider Lousungen.” Z. Phys. Chem. 92: Pp 129-168.
[11] Van Zanten, J.H., and Elimelech M., 1992; “Determination of Rate constants by multi angle light scattering.” Journal of colloid and interface Vol 154, pp 621
[12] Fridkhsberg, D.A., 1984; A course in Colloid Chemistry; Mir Publishers Moscow, Russia. pp 266-268
[13] Adebowale, Y.A., and Adebowale, K.A., 2007; “Evaluation of the Gelation characteristics of Mucuna Bean Flour and Protein isolate.” Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry,Vol 6,2007,pp 2243-2262.
[14] Water Specialist Technology (WST) 2003; About Coagulation and Flocculation: Information Bulletins, U.S.A. pp:1-10
[15] AWWA 2005; American Water Works Association;Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste water Effluent, New York, U.S.A.
[16] Ravina .L, 1993; Everything you need to know about coagulation and flocculation,4th Ed .Zeta Meter .Inc.Virginia USA.
[17] Nelkon M.; 1981;Principles of physics 4th Edn .Collins International Textbook DepartmentLondon.
[18] Yates, P., Yan, Y., Jamson, G. J., and Biggs, S., 2001; “Heteroaggregation of particle system: Aggregation Mechanisms and aggregate structure determination.”6th World Congress of Chemical Engineering,Melbourne,Australia,23-27 September,2001. pp: 1-10
[19] Holthof, H., Schmitt, A., Ferńandez-Barbero,M., Borkovec, M., Cabrerizo-Vilehez, P., Schurtenberger, P., and Hidalgo-Alvarez, R., 1997 ;“Measurement of Absolute Coagulation Rate Constants for Colloidal Particles: Comparison of Single and Multiparticle Light Scattering Techniques.”Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol 192, Pp 463-470.
[20] Holthof, H., Egelhaaf, S.U., Borkovec, M., Schurtenberger, P., and Sticher, H., 1996; “Coagulation Rate Measurement of Colloidal Particles by Simultaneous Static and Dynamic Light Scattering.”Langmuir Vol 12, Pp 5541.
[21] Menkiti M.C., Nnaji P.C., Nwoye C.I., Onukwuli O.D, 2010; Coag-flocculation kinetics and functional parameters response of Mucuna seed coagulant to pH variation in organic rich coal effluent medium. Journal of minerals and material characterization and Engineering, Vol 9, no 2,Pp 89-103.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.