Prolonged Release of the Local Anesthetic Butamben for Potential Use in Pain Management


Continuous delivery of local anesthetics might be useful for management of localized and chronic pain. Controlled release injectable anesthetics have been developed but they can deliver the drug for only few days and the release is not zero-order. A drug delivery system (DDS) consisting of a perforated reservoir for drug containment and release and its potential for management of chronic pain is described. Proof of principle is detailed for long-term zero order delivery of butamben. In this study, the DDS was a polyimide tube with a 0.20 mm hole and butamben release was evaluated in vitro. It is envisioned that the DDS could be implanted in proximity to a nerve, enervating the pain source, for long-term control of chronic pain.

Share and Cite:

A. Rastogi, S. Stavchansky and P. D. Bowman, "Prolonged Release of the Local Anesthetic Butamben for Potential Use in Pain Management," Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2012, pp. 291-294. doi: 10.4236/pp.2012.33038.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. P. Ney, M. Difazio, A. Sichani, W. Monacci, L. Foster and B. Jabbari, “Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain with Successive Injections of Botulinum Toxin a over 6 Months: A Prospective Trial of 60 Patients,” The Clinical Journal of Pain, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2006, pp. 363-369. doi:10.1097/01.ajp.0000174267.06993.3f
[2] M. E. Clark, M. J. Bair, C. C. Buckenmaier 3rd, R. J. Gironda and R. L. Walker, “Pain and Combat Injuries in Soldiers Returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Implications for Research and Practice,” Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2007, pp. 179-194. doi:10.1682/JRRD.2006.05.0057
[3] K. Miotto, P. Compton, W. Ling and M. Conolly, “Diagnosing Addictive Disease in Chronic Pain Patients,” Psychosomatics, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1996, pp. 223-235. doi:10.1016/S0033-3182(96)71561-X
[4] H. Epstein-Barash, I. Shichor, A. H. Kwon, S. Hall, M. W. Lawlor, R. Langer and D. S. Kohane, “Prolonged Duration Local Anesthesia with Minimal Toxicity,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 106, No. 17, 2009, pp. 7125-7130. doi:10.1073/pnas.0900598106
[5] G. Colombo, R. Padera, R. Langer and D. S. Kohane, “Prolonged Duration Local Anesthesia with Lipid-Protein-Sugar Particles Containing Bupivacaine and Dexamethasone,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, Vol. 75, No. 2, 2005, pp. 458-464. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.30443
[6] A. D. Beaulieu, P. M. Peloso, B. Haraoui, W. Bensen, G. Thomson, J. Wade, P. Quigley, et al., “Once-Daily, Controlled-Release Tramadol and Sustained-Release Diclofenac Relieve Chronic Pain Due to Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Pain Research & Management, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2008, pp. 103-110.
[7] H. S. Gilmer-Hill, J. E. Boggan, K. A. Smith and F. C. Wagner Jr., “Intrathecal Morphine Delivered via Subcutaneous Pump for Intractable Cancer Pain: A Review of the Literature,” Surgical Neurology, Vol. 51, No. 1, 1999, pp. 12-15. doi:10.1016/S0090-3019(98)00080-9
[8] O. T. Guttman, M. A. Rosenblatt and T. Mims, “Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome—A Novel Treatment Using an Intrathecal Morphine Pump to Relieve Intractable Visceral Pain,” Pain Practice, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2008, pp. 133-137. doi:10.1111/j.1533-2500.2007.00166.x
[9] S. Hong, J. S. Lee, J. W. Park, K. Nam, J. Choi, J. C. Lee, J. K. Park, et al., “Development of an Implantable In-trathecal Drug Infusion Pump,” Conference Proceedings of the IEEE—Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Vol. 5, No., 2004, pp. 3440-3442. doi:10.1109/IEMBS.2004.1403965
[10] J. Worner, K. Koth-bauer and H. Gerber, “Intrathecal Morphine Pump Malfunction Due to Leakage at the Catheter Connection Site: A Rare Problem and Its Prevention,” An esthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 108, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1994-1995. doi:10.1213/ane.0b013e3181a280e4
[11] A. Rastogi, Z. Luo, Z. Wu, P. S. Ho, P. D. Bowman and S. Stavchansky, “Devel-opment and Characterization of a Scalable Microperforated Device Capable of Long-Term Zero Order Drug Release,” Biomedical Microdevices, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2010, pp. 915-921. doi:10.1007/s10544-010-9446-x
[12] A. Rastogi, P. Bowman and S. Stavchansky, “Evaluation of a Perforated Drug Delivery System in Mice for Prolonged and Constant Release of a Hy-drophilic Drug,” Drug Delivery and Translational Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2012, pp. 106-111. doi:10.1007/s13346-012-0062-6
[13] L. J. Rampaart, J. P. Beekwilder, G. T. van Kempen, R. J. van den Berg and D. L. Ypey, “The Local Anesthetic Butamben Inhibits Total and L-Type Barium Currents in PC12 Cells,” Anesthesia & Analge-sia, Vol. 106, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1778-1783. doi:10.1213/ane.0b013e318172c3a2
[14] M. Shulman, T. R. Lubenow, H. A. Nath, W. Blazek, R. J. McCarthy and A. D. Ivankovich, “Nerve Blocks with 5% Butamben Suspension for the Treatment of Chronic Pain Syndromes,” Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1998, pp. 395-401. doi:10.1016/S1098-7339(98)90014-1
[15] S. M. Fishman, “Pain as the fifth Vital Sign: How Can I Tell When Back Pain Is Serious,” Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2005, pp. 77-79. doi:10.1080/J354v19n04_13
[16] D. J. Gillis, M. Wouda and N. Hjeltnes, “Non-Pharmacological Management of Orthostatic Hypotension after Spinal Cord Injury: A Critical Review of the Literature,” Spinal Cord, Vol. 46, No. 10, 2008, pp. 652-659. doi:10.1038/sc.2008.48
[17] M. A. Hanley, M. P. Jensen, D. M. Ehde, A. J. Hoffman, D. R. Patterson and L. R. Robinson, “Psychosocial Predictors of Long-Term Adjustment to Low-er-Limb Amputation and Phantom Limb Pain,” Disability and Rehabilitation, Vol. 26, No. 14-15, 2004, pp. 882-893. doi:10.1080/09638280410001708896
[18] C. Mercier and A. Sirigu, “Training with Virtual Visual Feedback to Alleviate Phantom Limb Pain,” Neuroreha- bilitation and Neural Repair, Vol. 23, No. 6, 2009, pp. 587-594. doi:10.1177/1545968308328717
[19] Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, “Relieving Pain in America-A Blueprint for Transforming, Prevention, Care, Education, and Research,” 2011. Education-Research/Report-Brief.aspx
[20] L. Simon, P. Bolisetty and M. N. Erazo, “Dynamics of Dissolution and Diffusion-Controlled Drug Release Systems,” Current Drug Delivery, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2011, pp. 144-151. doi:10.2174/156720111794479916

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.