Share This Article:

Food and Nutrient Intake among People Following Major Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:135KB) PP. 1004-1008
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.37133    5,396 Downloads   7,748 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Surgery to the upper gastrointestinal region of the gut results in symptoms greatly impacting on dietary intake, and a diet high in energy and protein is encouraged. The aim of this study was to examine the food and nutrient intakes of people having had major upper gastrointestinal surgery, and compare them to current food and nutrient recommendations. Materials and Methods: People having had major upper gastrointestinal rouxeny surgery greater than 6 months ago were recruited. Each person completed a three day food diary and food intakes were compared to the Healthy Food Guide for Australians. Macro and micro-nutrient intakes were compared to the Estimated Average Requirement reference values for Australia and New Zealand. Results: Thirty people were recruited and analysis of dietary intakes indicated inadequate serves of cereals, vegetables, fruit and dairy products compared to recommendations, resulting in below Estimated Average Requirements for many vitamins and minerals. Severely malnourished people, and those having had total gastrectomy surgery, were at greatest risk of not meeting macro and micro-nutrient recommendations. Conclusions: People having had major upper gastrointestinal surgery are encouraged to have a diet high in energy and protein. However this advice seems to be followed at the expense of other food groups, leading to low intakes of many micronutrients. Careful monitoring of dietary intakes and signs of nutrient deficiencies should be included as part of routine follow-up for this group of people. Further research is required to determine whether poor dietary intakes result in clinical deficiencies.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

S. Carey, J. Young and M. Allman-Farinelli, "Food and Nutrient Intake among People Following Major Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 7, 2012, pp. 1004-1008. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.37133.

References

[1] P. Viklund, Y. Wengstr?m, I. Rouvelas, M. Lindblad and J. Lagergren, “Quality of Life and Persisting Symptoms after Oesophageal Cancer Surgery,” European Journal of Cancer, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2006, pp. 1407-1414. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2006.02.005
[2] G. Bovio, G. Montagna, C. Bariani and P. Baiardi, “Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Advanced Cancer: Relationship to Nutritional and Performance Status,” Supportive Care in Cancer, Vol. 17, No. 10, 2009, pp. 1317-1324. doi:10.1007/s00520-009-0590-x
[3] J. Scholmerich, “Postgastrectomy Syndromes-Diagnosis and Treatment,” Best Practice & Research in Clinical Gastroenterology, Vol. 18, No. 5, 2004, pp. 917-933.
[4] B. Thomas, Ed., “Manual of Dietetic Practice,” 4th Edition, Blackwell Science, Oxford, 2007.
[5] S. Bisballe, S. Buus, B. Lund and I. Hessov, “Food Intake and Nutritional Status after Gastrectomy,” Human Nutrition—Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 40, No. 4, 1986, pp. 301-308.
[6] C. Maskell, P. Daniels and C. D. Johnson, “Dietary Intake after Pancreatectomy,” British Journal of Surgery, Vol. 86, No. 3, 1999, pp. 323-326. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2168.1999.01033.x
[7] D. J. Ludwig, R. C. Thirlby and D. E. Low, “A Prospective Evaluation of Dietary Status and Symptoms after Near-Total Esophagectomy without Gastric Emptying Procedure,” American Journal of Surgery, Vol. 181, No. 5, 2001, pp. 454-458. doi:10.1016/S0002-9610(01)00600-6
[8] E. B. Marcinowska-Suchowierska, M. J. Talalaj, A. W. Wlodarcyzk, K. Bielecki, J. J. Zawadzki and R. Brzozowski, “Calcium/Phosphate/Vitamin D Homeostasis and Bone Mass in Patients after Gastrectomy, Vagotomy, and Cholecystectomy,” World Journal of Surgery, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1995, pp. 597-601. doi:10.1007/BF00294730
[9] S. Carey, D. Storey, A. V. Biankin, D. Martin, J. Young and M. Allman-Farinelli, “Long Term Nutritional Status and Quality of Life Following Major Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery—A Cross-Sectional Study,” Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2011, pp. 774-779.
[10] Australian Government Department of Health and Aging, “Australian Guide to Healthy Eating,” Australian Government, Department of Health and Aging, Canberra, 1998.
[11] Australian Government Department of Health and Aging, National Health and Medical Research Council, “Nutrient Reference Values for Australian and New Zealand Executive Summary,” Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2006.
[12] A. Detsky, J. McLaughlin and J. Baker, “What is Subjective Global Assessment of Nutritional Status?” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1987, pp. 8-13. doi:10.1177/014860718701100108
[13] R. Gibson, “Principles of Nutrition Assessment,” 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 2005.
[14] W. N. Schofield, “Predicting Basal Metabolic Rate, New Standards and Review of Previous Work,” Human Nutrition—Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 39, Suppl. 1, 1985, pp. 5-41.
[15] World Health Organisation, Energy and Protein Requirements, “Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation,” World Health Organization Technical Report Series, No. 724, 1985, pp. 1-206.
[16] N. Barak, E. Wall-Alonso and M. D. Sitrin, “Evaluation of Stress Factors and Body Weight Adjustments Currently Used to Estimate Energy Expenditure in Hospitalized Patients,” Journal of Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2002, pp. 231-238. doi:10.1177/0148607102026004231
[17] S. Ferrie and M. Ward, “Back to Basics: Estimating Energy Requirements for Adult Hospital Patients,” Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2007, pp. 192-199. doi:10.1111/j.1747-0080.2007.00124.x
[18] G. R. Goldberg, A. E. Black, S. A. Jebb, T. J. Cole, P. R. Murgatroyd, W. A. Coward and A. M. Prentice, “Critical Evaluation of Energy Intake Data Using Fundamental Principles of Energy Physiology: 1. Derivation of Cut-Off Limits to Identify Under-Reporting,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 45, No. 12, 1991, pp. 569-581.
[19] S. P. Murphy and M. I. Poos, “Dietary Reference Intakes: Summary of Applications in Dietary Assessment,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 5, No. 6, 2002, pp. 843-849. doi:10.1079/PHN2002389
[20] W. McLennan and A. Podger, “1995 National Nutrition Survey: Nutrient Intakes and Physical Measurements,” Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, 1998.
[21] C. Clark and J. Crooks, “Osteomalacia after Gastrectomy,” The Lancet, Vol. 2, No. 7426, 1965, pp. 1347-1348. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(65)92370-6
[22] American Gastroenterological Association Medical Position Statement, “Guidelines on Osteoporosis in Gastrointestinal Diseases,” Gastroenterology, Vol. 124, No. 3, 2003, pp. 791-794. doi:10.1053/gast.2003.50107
[23] K. H. Baek, H. M. Jeon, S. S. Lee, D. J. Lim, K. W. Oh, W. Y. Lee, et al., “Short-Term Changes in Bone and Mineral Metabolism Following Gastrectomy in Gastric Cancer Patients,” Bone, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2008, pp. 61-67. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2007.08.027
[24] S. Carey, L. He and S. Ferrie, “Nutritional Management of Patients Undergoing Major Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery: A Survey of Current Practice in Australia,” Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 67, No. 4, 2010, pp. 219-223. doi:10.1111/j.1747-0080.2010.01466.x
[25] I. H. Rutishauser, “Dietary Intake Measurements,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 8, No. 7A, 2005, pp. 1100-1107. doi:10.1079/PHN2005798
[26] J. M. De Castro, “Eating Behavior: Lessons from the Real World of Humans,” Nutrition, Vol. 16, No. 10, 2000, pp. 800-813. doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(00)00414-7
[27] E. Tracey, N. Alam, W. Chen and J. Bishop, “Cancer in New South Wales: Incidence and Mortality Report,” Cancer Institute of New South Wales, New South Wales Health, Sydney, 2006.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.