Preparation for Graphite Materials and Study on Electrochemical Degradation of Phenol by Graphite Cathodes


Nanographite flake through ultrasound dispersing expanded graphite which got by chemical oxidation and microwave puffing method have been prepared by natural flake graphite. The microstructures of natural flake graphite, expanded graphite and nanographite sheets were characterized by means of SEM, XRD, FTIR and Raman; the cathodes were made by NG, EG and nanographite, respectively; the electrolysis phenol was conducted by the diaphragm cell prepared cathode and the Ti/RuO2 anode. The results showed that the thickness of graphite flake was 18 nm, and the grain size and particle size decreased compared with the NG and EG; Nano-G showed the best electrochemical properties; in the diaphragm electrolysis system with the aeration conditions, the degradation rate of phenol reached 89.5% COD reached 81.3% under 120 min’s electrolysis, which was far above the degradation rate of phenol of EG cathode and NG cathode.

Share and Cite:

X. Yu and L. Qiang, "Preparation for Graphite Materials and Study on Electrochemical Degradation of Phenol by Graphite Cathodes," Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2012, pp. 63-68. doi: 10.4236/ampc.2012.22011.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] R. G. Yu and X. J. Qiao, “Synthesis and Application of Expandable Graphite as a Nanometer Compound Material,” Materials Review, Vol. 17, 2003, pp. 125-126.
[2] J. H. Li, H. F. Da, Q. Liu and S. F. Liu, “Preparation of Sulfur-Free Expanded Graphite with 320 Mesh of Flake Graphite,” Materials Letters, Vol.60, No. 29-30, 2006, pp. 3927-3930. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2006.06.066
[3] M. Wissler, “Graphite and Carbon Powders for Electrochemical Applications,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 156, No. 2, 2006, pp. 142-150. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.02.064
[4] B. Tryba, J. Prze-piórski and A. W. Morawski, “In?uence of Chemically Prepared H2SO4-Graphite Intercalation Compound (GIC) Precursor on Parameters of Exfoliated Graphite (EG) for Oil Sorption from Water,” Carbon, Vol. 41, No. 10, 2003, pp. 2013-2016. doi:10.1016/S0008-6223(03)00200-8
[5] C. H. Yun, Y. H. Park and C. R. Park, “Effects of Pre- Carbonization on Porosity Development of Activated Carbons from Rice Straw,” Carbon, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2001, pp. 559-567. doi:10.1016/S0008-6223(00)00163-9
[6] B. G. Kim, S. K. Choi, H. S. Chung, J. J. Lee and F Saito, “Grinding Characte-ristics of Crystalline Graphite in a Low-Pressure Attrition Sys-tem,” Powder Technology, Vol. 126, No. 1, 2002, pp. 22-27. doi:10.1016/S0032-5910(02)00030-X
[7] T. Enoki, M. Su-zuki and M. Endo, “Graphite Intercalation Compounds and Applications,” Oxford University Press, New York, 2003.
[8] H. Y. Zhang, H. Q. Wang and G. H. Chen, “A New Kind of Conducting Filler-Graphite Nanosheets,” Plastics, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2006, pp. 42-50.
[9] G. L. Sun, “Progress on Methods and Mechanics of Preparing Nano-Graphite and Ap-plication,” Development and Application of Materials, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2011, pp. 77-80.
[10] K. Chen and Y. Lin, “Degradation of Phenol by PAA- Immobilized Candida Tropocalis Enzyme Microb,” Technology, Vol. 31, 2002, pp. 490-497.
[11] Y. Kong, X. H. Chen, J. H. Ni, S. P. Yao, W. C. Wang, Z. Y. Luo and Z. D. Chen, “Palygorskite—Expanded Graphite Electrodes for Catalytic Electro-Oxidation of Phenol,” Applied Clay Science, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 64-68. doi:10.1016/j.clay.2010.04.003
[12] H. Wang and J. L. Wang, “Comparative Study on Electrochemical Degradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by Different Pd/C Gas-Diffusion Cathodes,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 89, No. 1-2, 2009, pp. 111-117. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2008.12.003
[13] C. Comninellis, “Elec-trocatalysis in the Electrochemical Conversion/Combustion of Organic Pollutants for Waste Water Treatment,” Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 39, No. 11- 12, 1994, pp. 1857-1862. doi:10.1016/0013-4686(94)85175-1
[14] A. Alejandre, F. Medina, P. Salagre, A. Fabregat and J. E. Sueiras, “Characteri-zation and Activity of Copper and Nickel Catalysts for the Oxidation of Phenol Aqueous Solutions,” Application Catalysis B: Environment, Vol. 18, No. 3-4, 1998, pp. 307-315.
[15] H. Wang and Z. Y. Bian, “Degradation Mechanism of Phenol with Electrogenerated Hydrogen Peroxide on a Pd/C Gas-Diffusion Electrode,” Enviromental Science, Vol. 31, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1506-1507.
[16] S. P. Faulkner Jr., W. H. Patrick and R. P. Gambrell, “Field Techniques for Measuring Wetland Soil Parameters,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 53, No. 3, 1988, pp. 883-890. doi:10.2136/sssaj1989.03615995005300030042x
[17] American Water Works Association and Water Pollution Control Fed-eration, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water,” 19th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 1995.
[18] J. M. Shen, J. Y. Li, Q. Chen, T. Luo, W. C. Yu and Y. T. Qian, “Synthesis of Multi-Shell Carbon Microspheres,” Carbon, Vol. 44, No. 1, 2006, pp. 190-193. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2005.05.049
[19] A. Celzard, J. F. Mareche and G. Furdin, “Surface Area of Compressed Expanded Graphite,” Carbon, Vol. 40, No. 14, 2002, pp. 2713-2718.
[20] Y. Nishi, N. Iwashita and M. Inagaki, “Evaluation of Pore Struture of Exfoliated Gaphite by Mercury Po-rosimeter,” Tanso, Vol. 2002, No. 201, 2002, pp. 31-34. doi:10.7209/tanso.2002.31
[21] M. Inagaki and T. Suwa, “Pore Structure Analysis of Exfoliated Graphite Using Image Processing of Scaning Electron Micrographs,” Carbon, Vol. 39, No. 6, 2001, pp. 915-920. doi:10.1016/S0008-6223(00)00199-8
[22] A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 97, No. 18, 2006, pp. 187401-187404. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.187401
[23] J. P. Tu, L. P. Zhu, K. Hou and S. Y. Guo, “Synthesis and Frictional Properties of Arry Film of Amorphous Carbon Nanofibers on Anodic Alu-minum Oxide,” Carbon, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1257-1263. doi:10.1016/S0008-6223(03)00047-2
[24] Y. Lu, Z. Zhu and Z. Y. Liu, “Carbon-Encapsulated Fe Nanoparticles from Detonation-Induced Pyrolysis of Ferrocene,” Carbon, Vol. 43, No. 2, 2005, pp. 369-374. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.09.020
[25] F. Tuinstra and J. L. Koenig, “Raman Spectrum of Graphite,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 53, No. 3, 1970, pp. 1126-1130. doi:10.1063/1.1674108
[26] Y. J. Feng, H. Y. Ding and W. J. Zhang, “Research on Electrocatalytic Properties of Rare Earth Doped Ti/SnO2- Sb Electrodes by CV and Tafel Curves,” Materials Science & Technology, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2009, pp. 278-284.
[27] X. J. Yu, H. Wang, L. Wu and D. Z. Sun, “Degradation of Phenol in the Electrolytic Cell with a Diaphragm by Electrocatalytic Oxidation,” Materials Science & Technology, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2004, pp. 303-306.
[28] J. M. Fang, R. C. Sun, D. Salisbury, P. Fowler and J. Tomkinson, “Comparative Study of Hemicelluloses from Wheat Straw by Alkali and Hydrogen Peroxide Extractions,” Polymer Degradation Stability, Vol. 66, No. 3, 1999, pp. 423-432. doi:10.1016/S0141-3910(99)00095-6
[29] H. Wang and J. L. Wang, “Electrochemical Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol Using a Novel Pd/C Gas-Diffusion Electrode,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 77, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 58-65. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2007.07.004

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.