Optical Chemical Sensor for Screening Cadmium (II) in Natural Waters


Membrane based optical chemical sensor (optode) for Cd(II) was developed by the immobilization of a dye 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-Napthol (PAN) in the Tri-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phosphate (TEHP) plasticized Cellulose Triacetate (CTA) matrix. Various combinations of PAN immobilized in the cellulose triacetate CTA and Polystyrene (PS) matrices plasticized with Tri-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phosphate TEHP, 2-Nitrophenyl Octyl Ether (NPOE) and Dioctyl Phthalate (DOP) were studied to arrive a suitable composition and found that the optode does not require any extractant to produce a distinct colour change on complexation with Cd(II). On sorption of Cd(II) in the optode matrix, PAN changes color of the optode from golden yellow to violet red having a maximum absorbance (lmax = 553 nm) within 150 min of total equilibration time at pH = 7.5. The optode developed in the present work was studied for its analytical application for Cd(II) in the aqueous samples by spectrophotometry and as well as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS). This preconcentrated optode showed a linear response by UV-visible spectrophotometry at λmax = 553 nm over a concentration range of 10 ng/mL–1 to 500 ng/mL–1 of Cd(II) ions. Where as the aqueous solutions was also subjected to FAAS before and after equilibration of the optode and found to be linear in the concentration range of 250 ng/mL–1 to 5000 ng/mL–1 of Cd(II) ions. The optode found to be reversible and can be desorbed by equilibrating it with 0.01 mol/L–1 HNO3. The applicability of the developed optode in real samples was studied by determining cadmium in the natural waters spiked with a known amount of Cd(II) ions.

Share and Cite:

Y. Tharakeswar, Y. Kalyan, B. Gangadhar, K. Sujan Kumar and G. Ramakrishna Naidu, "Optical Chemical Sensor for Screening Cadmium (II) in Natural Waters," Journal of Sensor Technology, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2012, pp. 68-74. doi: 10.4236/jst.2012.22010.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. Soylak, U. Divrikli, S. Saracoglu and L. Elci, “Membrane Filtration—Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Combination for Copper, Cobalt, Cadmium, Lead and Chromium in Environmental Samples,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 127, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 169-176. doi:10.1007/s10661-006-9271-0
[2] A. Kaur and U. Gupta, “A Preconcentration Procedure Using 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-Napthol Anchored to Silica Nanoparticle for the Analysis of Cadmium in Different Samples,” E-Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2008, pp. 930-939. doi:10.1155/2008/431916
[3] M. Khosravan and A. S. Saljooghi, “Determination of Cadmium by FAAS after Adsorption and Preconcentration on 2-Aminothiophenol Modified Silica Gel,” European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 48, No. 4, 2011, pp. 606-613.
[4] F. Depault, M. Cojocaru, F. Fortin, S. Chakrabarti and N. Lemieux, “Genotoxic Effects of Chromium(VI) and Cadmium(II) in Human Blood Lymphocytes Using the Electron Microscopy in Situ End-Labeling (EM-ISEL) Assay,” Toxicology in Vitro, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2006, pp. 513-518. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2005.09.003
[5] A. C. Davis, P. Wu, X. Zhang, X. Hou and B. T. Jones, “Determination of Cadmium in Biological Samples,” Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2006, pp. 35-75. doi:10.1080/05704920500385486
[6] M. R. Ullah and M. E. Haque, “Spectrophotometric Determination of Toxic Elements (Cadmium) in Aqueous Media,” Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2010, pp. 1-12.
[7] M. Jamaluddin Ahmed, M. Salim and J. Bangladesh Acad, “Second Annual Report on Carcinogens,” Environmental Protection Agency, NTP 81-43, December 1981, pp. 73-80.
[8] S. J. Haswell, “Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: Theory, Design and Applications,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991.
[9] A. Erdem and A. E. Eroglu, “Speciation and Preconcentration of Inorganic Antimony in WATERS by Duolite GT-73 Microcolumn and Determination by Segmented Flow Injection-Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (SFI-HGAAS),” Talanta, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2005, pp. 86-92. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2005.04.041
[10] S. L. C. Ferreira, W. N. L. dos Santos, M. A. Bezerra, V. A. Lemos and J. M. Bosque-Sendra, “Use of Factorial Design and Doehlert Matrix for Multivariate Optimisation of an On-Line Preconcentration System for Lead Determination by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 375, No. 3, 2003, pp. 443-449.
[11] A. A. Ensafi and Z. N. Isfahani, “A Simple Optical Sensor for Cadmium Ion Assay in Water Samples Using Spectrophotometry,” Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 66, No. 2, 2011, pp. 151-157. doi:10.1134/S106193481102002X
[12] Y. Kalyan, A. K. Pandey, G. R. K. Naidu and A. V. R. Reddy, “Membrane Optode for Uranium(VI) Ions Preconcentration and Quantification Based on a Synergistic Combination of 4-(2-Thiazolylazo)-Resorcinol with 8-Hydroxyquinaldine,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular, Vol. 74, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1235-1241. doi:10.1016/j.saa.2009.09.045
[13] A. A. Ensafi, S. Meghdadi and E. Fooladgar, “Development of a New Selective Optical Sensor for Cd(II) Ions Based on 4-Hydroxy Salophen,” IEEE Sensor Journal, Vol. 8, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1794-1800. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2008.2005227
[14] C. Sanchez-Pedreno, M. S. Garcia, J. A. Ortuno, M. I. Albero and R. Exposito, “Kinetic Methods for the Determination of Cadmium(II) Based on a Flow-Through Bulk Optode,” Talanta, Vol. 56, No. 3, 2002, pp. 481-489. doi:10.1016/S0039-9140(01)00571-9
[15] Y. Kurauchi, R. Hayashi, N. Egashira and K. Ohga, “Fluorometric Determination of Zinc, Cadmium and Gallium Ions with a Fiber-Optic Sensor Having a Pyridoxal Isomer-Modified Chitosan/Agarose Gel as a Sensing Probe,” Analytical Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 6, 1992, pp. 837-840. doi:10.2116/analsci.8.837
[16] I. Oehme and O. S. Wolfbeis, “Optical Sensors for Determination of Heavy Metal Ions,” Microchimica Acta, Vol. 126, No. 3-4, 1997, pp. 177-192. doi:10.1007/BF01242319
[17] M. Valcarcel and M. D. L. de Castro, “Flow-Through (Bio)-chemical Sensors,” Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1994.
[18] R. Czolk, J. Reichert and H. J. Ache, “An Optical Sensor for the Detection of Heavy Metal Ions,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 7, No. 1-3, 1992, pp. 540-543. doi:10.1016/0925-4005(92)80360-A
[19] B. Kuswandi, A. A. Vaughan and R. Narayanaswamy, “Simple Regression Model Using an Optode for the Simultaneous Determination of Zinc and Cadmium Mixtures in Aqueous Samples,” Analytical Sciences, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2001, pp. 181-186. doi:10.2116/analsci.17.181
[20] B. Rezaei, S. Meghdadi and S. Bagherpour, “Cadmium Selective PVC-Membranes Sensor Based on 1,2-Bis (Quinoline-2-Carboxamido)-4-Chlorobenzene as a Neutral Carrier,” Sensors Journal, Vol. 8, No. 8, 2008, pp. 1469-1477. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2008.920719
[21] D. L. Giokas, E. K. Paleologos, M. I. Prodromidis and M. I. Karayannis, “Development of 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-Naphthol-Modified Polymeric Membranes for the Effective Batch Pre-Concentration and Determination of Zinc Traces with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry,” Talanta, Vol. 56, No. 3, 2002, pp. 491-498. doi:10.1016/S0039-9140(01)00572-0
[22] C. Sanchez-Pedreno, J. A. Ortuno, M. I. Albero, M. S. Garcia and M. V. Valero, “Development of a New Bulk Optode Membrane for the Determination of Mercury(II),” Analytical Chimica Acta, Vol. 414, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 195-203. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(00)00809-6

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.