By Sector Water Consumption and Related Economy Analysis Integrated Model and Its Application in Hai River Basin, China


This paper established a by sector water consumption and economy analysis integrated model with input–output analysis method. The model can be used to identify the relationships between economic activities and the direct water consumption, the total water consumption and the intersectoral water transaction for detailed sectors in regional economy. The method is applied to Hai River Basin in China that is characterized by water shortage. The results found that in Hai River Basin, agriculture sector is responsible for 81.2% of the direct total water consumption in the region, but industrial and service sectors account for 53.2% of the indirect total water consumption. To 24 industrial and service sectors, their ratios of indirect water consumption to total water consumption belong to [90%, 99%]. To per unit output, water consumption intensity was highest in agriculture sector 1 at 96.91 m3 per thousand Yuan, the value of 28 industrial and service sectors were smaller than 1. Products of sector 1, sector 24, sector 3, sector 12, sector 6, sector 11 and sector 10 are the main suppliers of indirect water.

Share and Cite:

X. Liu, "By Sector Water Consumption and Related Economy Analysis Integrated Model and Its Application in Hai River Basin, China," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 4 No. 5, 2012, pp. 264-276. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.45029.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] D. J. Zhu and J. W. Lu, “The Water-Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat and Maize on a Salt-Affected Soil in the Huang Huai Hai River Plain of China,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1993, pp. 67-82. doi: 10.1016/0378-3774(93)90021-2
[2] CH. M. Liu and J. Xia, “Water Problems and Hydrological Research in the Yellow River and the Huai and Hai River Basins of China,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 18, No. 12, 2004, pp. 2197-2210. doi: 10.1002/hyp.5524
[3] X. B. Liu, W. Q. Peng., G. J. He, J. J. Liu and Y. CH. Wang, “A Coupled Model of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Yuqiao Reservoir in Haihe River Basin,” Journal of Hydrodynamics, Series B, Vol. 20, No. 5, 2008, pp. 574-582.
[4] P. G. Yang, R. ZH. Mao and H. B. Shao, “An Investigation on Magnetic Susceptibility of Hazardous SalineAlkaline Soils from the Contaminated Hai River Basin, China,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 172, No. 1, 2009, pp. 494-497. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.011
[5] L. Wang, G. G.Ying, J. L. Zhao, X. B.Yang, F. Chen, R. Tao, SH. Liu and L. J. Zhou, “Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Acidic Pharmaceuticals in the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River of North China,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 408, No. 16, 2010, pp. 3139-3147. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.04.047
[6] Y. H. Zhu, S. Drake, H. SH. Lüand J. Xia, “Analysis of Temporal and Spatial Differences in Eco-environmental Carrying Capacity Related to Water in the Haihe River Basins, China,” Water Resources Management, Vol. 24, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1089-1105. doi: 10.1007/s11269-009-9487-1
[7] SH. L. Lu, B. F. Wu, H. Wang, N. L. Ouyang and SH. Y. Guo, “Hydro-Ecological Impact of Water Conservancy Projects in the Haihe River Basin Original Research Article,” Acta Oecologica, 2011, in Press. doi: 10.1016/j.actao.2011.07.003
[8] CH. H. Xu, Y. Luo and Y. Xu, “Projected Changes of Precipitation Extremes in River Basins over China,” Quaternary International, Vol. 244, No. 2, 2011, pp. 149158. doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2011.01.002
[9] X. R. Huang, Y. S. Pei and C. Liang, “Input-Output Method for Calculating the Virtual Water Trading in Ningxia,” Advances in Water Science, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2005, pp. 135-139.
[10] J. L. Zhang, “Barriers to Water Markets in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 87, No. 1, 2007, pp. 32-40. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2006.05.020
[11] J. Khouri, “Sustainable Development and Management of Water Resources in the Arab Region,” Developments in Water Science, Vol. 50, 2003, pp. 199-220. doi: 10.1016/S0167-5648(03)80018-7
[12] L. Mehta, “Whose Scarcity? Whose Property? The Case of Water in Western India,” Land Use Policy, Vol. 24, 2007, pp. 654-663. doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2006.05.009
[13] E. Vela′zquez, “An Input-Output Model of Water Consumption: Analyzing Intersectoral Water Relationships in Andalusia,” Ecological Economics, Vol. 56, 2005, pp. 226-240.
[14] E. Hellsten, S. Ribacke and G. Wickbom, “SWEEASwedish Environmental and Economic Account,” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1999, pp. 39-72. doi: 10.1016/S0954-349X(98)00059-9
[15] United Nations, Eurostat, International Monetary Fund, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Bank, “System of National Accounts,” Series F, 2. United Nations, New York, 1993.
[16] S. J. Keuning, J. V. Dalen and M. D. Haan, “The Netherlands’ NAMEA: Presentation, Usage and Future Extensions,” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1999, pp. 15-37. doi: 10.1016/S0954-349X(98)00058-7
[17] M. Jesper, M. Wier and M. Lenzen, “Using Input-Output Analysis to Measure the Environmental Pressure of Consumption at Different Spatial Levels,” Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 9, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 169-185.
[18] M. Lenzen, “Primary Energy and Greenhouse Gases Embodied in Australian Final Consumption: An InputOutput Analysis,” Energy Policy, Vol. 26, 1998, pp. 495-506. doi: 10.1016/S0301-4215(98)00012-3
[19] M. Lenzen, “A Guide for Compiling Inventories in Hybrid LCA: Some Australian Results,” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 10, 2002, pp. 545-572. doi: 10.1016/S0959-6526(02)00007-0
[20] M. Lenzen, “Environmentally Important Linkages and Key Sectors in the Australian Economy,” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Vol. 14, 2003, pp. 1-34. doi: 10.1016/S0954-349X(02)00025-5
[21] K. Hubacek and L. Sun, “A Scenario Analysis of China’s Land Use Change: Incorporating Biophysical Information into Input-Output Modeling,” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2001, pp. 367-397. doi: 10.1016/S0954-349X(01)00029-7
[22] S. Giljum, K. Hubacek and L. Sun, “Beyond the Simple Material Balance: A Reply to Sangwong Suh’s Note on Physical Input-Output Analysis,” Ecological Economics, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2004, pp. 19-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2003.09.004
[23] S. Suh, M. Lenzen and G. J. Treloar, “System Boundary Selection in Life-Cycle Inventories Using Hybrid Approaches,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 38, 2004, pp. 657-664. doi: 10.1021/es0263745
[24] T. Wiedmann, J. Minx, J. Barrett and M. Wackernagel, “Allocating Ecological Footprints to Final Consumption Categories with Input-Output Analysis,” Ecological Economics, Vol. 56, 2006, pp. 28-48. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.05.012
[25] K. Hikita, K. Shimpo and M. Shukla, “Making InputOutput Tables for Environmental Analysis for India: 1993/94 and 1998/99,” Sixteenth International Conference on Input-Output Techniques, Istanbul, 2007.
[26] E. M. Lofting and P. H. McGauhey, “Economic Valuation of Water. An Input-Output Analysis of California Water Requirements,” Contribution 116. University of California Water Resources Center, Berkeley, 1968.
[27] X. K. Chen, “Shanxi Water Resource Input-OccupancyOutput Table and Its Application in Shanxi Province of China,” Thirteenth International Conference on InputOutput Techniques, Macerata, Italy, 2000.
[28] H. Bouhia, “Water in the Macro Economy: Integrating Economics and Engineering into an Analytical Model,” Ashgate Publishing Limited, Hampshire, 2001.
[29] R. Duarte, J. S. Cho′liz and J. Bielsa, “Water Use in the Spanish Economy: An Input-Output Approach,” Ecological Economics, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2002, pp. 71-85. doi: 10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00183-0
[30] W. Leontief, “Input-Output Economics,” Oxford University Press, New York, 1966.
[31] A. Manresa, F. Sancho and J. M. Vegara, “Measuring Commodities’ Commodity Content,” Economic Systems Research, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1998, pp. 357-365. doi: 10.1080/09535319800000026
[32] P. Gay and J. L. R. Proops, “Carbon Dioxide Production by the UK Economy: An Input-Output Assessment,” Applied Energy, Vol. 44, No. 2, 1993, pp. 113-130. doi: 10.1016/0306-2619(93)90057-V
[33] J. Domagalski, X. Q. Zhou, CH. Lin, D. G. Zhi, L. CH. Fan, K. T. Xu, Y. Lü, Y. Luo, SH. D. Liu, D. W. Liu, Y. Guo, Q. Tian, J. Liu, W. D. Yu, R. Shedlock and D. Knifong, “Comparative Water-Quality Assessment of the Hai He River Basin in the People’s Republic of China and Three Similar Basins in the United States,” U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1647, Sacramento, California, 2001.
[34] X. K. Chen, “Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Its Application in China,” London: Macmillan Press, 1990.
[35] CH. Lin, “Hai He River Water Conservancy Commission,” Written Commun, 1998.
[36] J. A. Allan, “Virtual Water: A Long Term Solution for Water Short Middle Eastern Economies?” SOAS Water Issues Study Group, Occasional Papers, London, 1997.
[37] J. A. Allan, “ Virtual Water: A Strategic Resource. Global Solutions to Regional Deficits,” Groundwater, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1998, pp. 545-546. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.1998.tb02825.x

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.