Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome among Employees: A Study from Jordan

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.35091   PDF   HTML     3,983 Downloads   6,292 Views   Citations

Abstract

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major health problem around the world including Jordan and it has received notable consideration from epidemiologists in the latest years. The objective of this study was to estimate MetS prevalence among employees and its associated factors including socio-demographic, lifestyle, and dietary. Methods: A total of 491 employees (344 men and 147 women aged 20 - 65 years) participated in this study. Data concerning fasting plasma glucose level, lipid profile, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements and 24-dietary recalls were obtained. Results: MetS prevalence was 36.3% (38.7% among men and 30.6% among women). Multiple logistic regression analysis results showed that the odds ratio of MetS was increased in older ages (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.43 - 6.47; p < 0.01) and smokers (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 2.58 - 4.22; p < 0.01). With elevation 1 unit in the body mass index (BMI), risk of MetS increased by 30% (95% CI: 22.9% - 38.4%; p < 0.01) and an increase1 mg/day in dietary iron intake, the risk of MetS increased 2.4% (95% CI: 0.07% - 4.3%; p < 0.01). Conclusions: MetS prevalence is considered to be high among Jordanian employees which highlights the urgent need to develop comprehensive national strategies for prevention and treatment of MetS.

Share and Cite:

B. Obeidat, E. Al-Shami, K. Abdul-Razzak and Y. Khader, "Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome among Employees: A Study from Jordan," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 5, 2012, pp. 669-677. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.35091.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] S. M. Grundy, J. I. Cleeman, S. R. Daniels, K. A. Donato, R. H. Eckel, B. A. Franklin, D. J. Gordon, R. M. Krauss, P. J. Savage, S. C. J. Smith, J. A. Spertus and F. Costa, “Diagnosis and Management of the Metabolic Syndrome. An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement,” Circulation, Vol. 112, No. 17, 2005, pp. 2735-2752. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.169404
[2] S. Malik, N. D. Wong, S. S. Franklin, T. V. Kamath, G. J. L’Italien, J. R. Pio and G. R. Williams, “Impact of the Metabolic Syndrome on Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease, Cardiovascular Disease, and All Causes in United States Adults,” Circulation, Vol. 110, No. 10, 2004, pp. 1245-1250. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000140677.20606.0E
[3] N. D. Wong, “Metabolic Syndrome: Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and Management,” American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2007, pp. 259-172. doi:10.2165/00129784-200707040-00004
[4] T. N. Akbaraly, M. Kivimaki, M. L. Ancelin, P. Barberger-Gateau, T. Mura, C. Tzourio, J. Touchon, K. Ritchie and C. Berr, “Metabolic Syndrome, Its CompoNents, and Mortality In the Elderly,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 95, No. 11, 2010, pp. E327-E332. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-0153
[5] P. Dandona, A. Aljada, A. Chaudhuri, P. Mohanty and R. Garg, “Metabolic Syndrome: A Comprehensive Perspective Based on Interactions between Obesity, Diabetes, and Inflammation,” Circulation, Vol. 111, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1448-1454. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000158483.13093.9D
[6] K. D. Bruce and C. D. Byrne, “The Metabolic Syndrome: Common Origins of a Multifactorial Disorder,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, Vol. 85, No. 1009, 2009, pp. 614621. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2008.078014
[7] H. Ashraf, A. Rashidi, S. Noshad, O. Khalilzadeh and A. Esteghamati, “Epidemiology and Risk Factors of the Cardiometabolic Syndrome in the Middle East,” Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2011, pp. 309-320. doi:10.1586/erc.11.9
[8] K. Khunti and M. Davies, “Metabolic Syndrome,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 331, No. 7526, 2005, pp. 11531154. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7526.1153
[9] M. A. Sánchez-Chaparro, E. Calvo-Bonacho, A. González-Quintela, C. Fernández-Labandera, M. Cabrera, J. C. Sáinz, A. Fernández-Meseguer, J. R. Banegas, L. M. Ruilope, P. Valdivielso and J. Román-García, “Ibermutuamur Cardiovascular Risk Assessment (ICARIA) Study Group. Occupation-Related Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 31, 2008, pp. 1884-1885.
[10] Y.C. Lin, T. J. Hsiao and P. C. Chen, “Persistent Rotating Shift-Work Exposure Accelerates Development of Metabolic Syndrome among Middle-Aged Female Employees: A Five-Year Follow-Up,” Chronobiology International, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2009, pp. 740-755. doi:10.1080/07420520902929029
[11] C. V. Nair, “Metabolic Syndrome: An Occupational Perspective,” Indian Journal of Community Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2010, pp. 122-124. doi:10.4103/0970-0218.62569
[12] E. P. Davila, H. Florez, L. E. Fleming, D. J. Lee, E. Goodman, W. G. LeBlanc, A. J. Caban-Martinez , K. L. Arheart, K. E. McCollister, S. L. Christ, J. C. Clark III and T. Clarke, “Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among US Workers,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 33, No. 11, 2010, pp. 2390-2395. doi:10.2337/dc10-0681
[13] Y. Khader, A. Bateiha, M. El-Khateeb, A. Al-Shaikh and K. Ajlouni, “High Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among Northern Jordanians,” Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2007, pp. 214-219. doi:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2005.11.003
[14] S. Zhu, M. P. St-Onge, S. Heshka and S. B. Heymsfield, “Lifestyle Behaviors Associated with Lower Risk of Having the Metabolic Syndrome,” Metabolism, Vol. 53, No. 11, 2004, pp. 1503-1511. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2004.04.017
[15] D. Son, N. Kunii, T. Hung, S. Sakai and S. Yamamoto, “The Metabolic Syndrome: Prevalence and Risk Factors in the Urban Population of Ho Chi Minh City,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol. 67, No. 3, 2005, pp. 243-250. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2004.07.014
[16] A. J. Cameron, D. J. Magliano, P. Z. Zimmet, T. Welborn and J. E. Shaw, “The Metabolic Syndrome in Australia: Prevalence Using Four Definitions,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol. 77, No. 3, 2007, pp. 471-478. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2007.02.002
[17] G. Buckland, J. Salas-Salvadó, E. Roure, M. Bulló and L. Serra-Majem, “Sociodemographic Risk Factors Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in a Mediterranean Population,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 11, No. 12, 2008, pp. 1372-1378. doi:10.1017/S1368980008003492
[18] M. Kwa?niewska, D. Kaleta, E. Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk and W. Drygas, “Healthy Behaviors, Lifestyle Patterns and Sociodemographic Determinants of the Metabolic Syndrome,” Central European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2009, pp. 14-19.
[19] D. B. Carr, K. M. Utzschneider, R. L. Hull, K. Kodama, B. M. Retzlaff, J. D. Brunzell, J. B. Shofer, B. E. Fish, R. H. Knopp and S. E. Kahn, “Intraabdominal Fat Is a Major Determinant of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the Metabolic Syndrome,” Diabetes, Vol. 53, 2004, pp. 20872094. doi:10.2337/diabetes.53.8.2087
[20] H. S. Park, S. W. Oh, S. Cho, W. H. Choi and Y. S. Kim, “Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes; The Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Lifestyle Factors among South Korean Adults,” International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2004, pp. 328-336. doi:10.1093/ije/dyh032
[21] “National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Overweight, Obesity, and Health Risk,” Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 160, No. 7, 2000, pp. 898-904.
[22] “National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report,” Circulation, Vol. 106, 2001, pp. 3143-3421.
[23] J. B. Meigs, P. W. F. Wilson, D. M. Nathan, R. B. D’Agostino, K. Williams and S. M. Haffner, “Prevalence and Characteristics of the Metabolic Syndrome in the San Antonio Heart and Framingham Offspring Studies,” Diabetes, Vol. 52, No. 8, 2003, pp. 2160-2167. doi:10.2337/diabetes.52.8.2160
[24] S. A. Al-Safi, “Dose Smoking Affect Blood Pressure and Heart Rate?” European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2005, pp. 286-289. doi:10.1016/j.ejcnurse.2005.03.004
[25] S. A. Al-Safi, F. H. Aboul-Enein, B. H. Aboul-Enein and B. Manuel, “Influence of Family History and Lifestyle on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Young Adults in Jordan,” Public Health, Vol. 120, No. 11, 2006, pp. 10271032. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2006.06.009
[26] J. Ma and M. J. Stampfer, “Body Iron and Coronary Heart Disease,” Clinica Chimica Acta, Vol. 48, 2002, pp. 601-603.
[27] R. D. Bayens and M. H. Stipanuk, “Biochemical and Biophysical Aspects of Human Nutrition,” Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 2000.
[28] J. L. Sullivan, “Iron and Sex Difference in Heart Disease Risk,” Lancet, Vol. 1, 1981, pp. 1293-1294. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(81)92463-6
[29] J. J. Fogli-Cawley, J. T. Dwyer, E. Saltzman, M. L. McCullough, L. M. Troy, J. B. Meigs and P. F. Jacques, “The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Risk of the Metabolic Syndrome,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 86, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1193-1201.
[30] J. I. Mann, “Nutrition Recommendations for the Treatment and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome: An Evidenced Based Review,” Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 64, No. 9, 2006, pp. 422-427. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2006.tb00227.x
[31] “Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: 5th report (JNC V),” Archives of Internal Medicine, 1993, pp. 149-153.
[32] G. B?nner, “Hyperinsulinemia, Insulin Resistance, and Hypertension,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Vol. 24, 1994, pp. S39-S49.
[33] A. H. Lichtenstein, L. M. Ausman, S. M. Jalbert and E. J. Schaefer, “Effects of Different Forms of Dietary Hydrogenated Fats on Serum Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 340, No. 25, 1999, pp. 1933-1940. doi:10.1056/NEJM199906243402501
[34] F. B. Hu, J. E. Manson and W. C. Willett, “Types of Dietary Fat and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Critical Review,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2001, pp. 5-19.
[35] R. Freire, R. A. Cardoso, I. G. A. Gimeno and R. S. G. Ferreira, “Dietary Fat Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Brazilians,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 28, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1779-1785. doi:10.2337/diacare.28.7.1779

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.