Efficacy of plant extracts in plant disease management


The overzealous and indiscriminate use of most of the synthetic fungicides has created different types of environmental and toxicological problems. Recently, in different parts of the world, attention has been paid towards exploitation of higher plant products as novel chemotherapeutants in plant protection. The popularity of botanical pesticides is once again increasing and some plant products are being used globally as green pesticides. Pyrethroids and neem products are well established commercially as botanical pesticides and recently some essential oils of higher plants have also been used as antimicrobials against storage pests because of their relatively safe status and wide acceptance by the consumers. Some of the volatile oils, which often contain the principal aromatic and flavouring components of herbs and spices, have been recommended as plant based antimicrobials to retard microbial contamination and reduction in spoilage of food commodities. In the context of agricultural pest management, botanical pesticides are best suited for use in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in the production and post harvest protection of food products in developing countries.

Share and Cite:

Gurjar, M. , Ali, S. , Akhtar, M. and Singh, K. (2012) Efficacy of plant extracts in plant disease management. Agricultural Sciences, 3, 425-433. doi: 10.4236/as.2012.33050.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Cowan, M.M. (1999) Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12, 564-582.
[2] Das, K., Tiwari, R.K.S. and. Shrivastava, D.K. (2010) Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agent: Current methods and future trends. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4, 104-111.
[3] Slusarenko, A.J., Patel, A. and Portz, D. (2008) Control of plant diseases by natural products: Allicin from garlic as a case study. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 121, 313-322. doi:10.1007/s10658-007-9232-7
[4] Salomone, A., Scaritto, G., Sacco, A., Cabras, G. and Angioni, A. (2008) Inhibitory effects of the main compounds of oregano essential oil against some pathogenic fungi. Modern fungicide and Antifungal compounds V. Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft, 44, 345-360.
[5] Lavanya, N., Saravanakumar, D., Rajendran, L., Ramiah, M., Raguchander, T. and Samiyappan, R. (2009) Management of sunflower necrosis virus through antiviral substances. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 42, 265-276. doi:10.1080/03235400601037149
[6] Tiwari, R.K.S., Chandravanshi, S.S. and Ojha, B.M. (2005) Efficacy of extracts of medicinal plant species on growth of Sclerotium rolfsii root rot in tomato. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 34, 461-464.
[7] Salie, F., Eagles, P.F.K. and Lens, H.M.J. (1996) Preliminary antimicrobial screening of four South African Asteraceae species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 52, 27- 33. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(96)01381-5
[8] Ncube, N., Afolayan, S.A.J. and Okoh, A.I. (2008) Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin: Current methods and future trends. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 1797-1806.
[9] Parekh, J., Jadeja, D. and Chanda, S. (2005) Efficacy of aqueous and methanol extracts of some medicinal plants for potential antibacterial activity. Turkish Journal of Biology, 29, 203-210.
[10] Harmala, P., Vuorela, H., Tornquist, K. and Hiltunen, R. (1992) Choice of solvent in the extraction of Angelica archangelica roots with reference to calcium blocking activity. Planta Medica, 58, 176-183. doi:10.1055/s-2006-961424
[11] Eloff, J.N. (1998) A sensitive and quick microplate method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of plant extracts for bacteria. Planta Medica, 64, 711-713. doi:10.1055/s-2006-957563
[12] Eloff, J.N. (1998) Which extractant should be used for the screening and isolation of antimicrobial components from plants? Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 60, 1-8. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00123-2
[13] Green, R.J. (2004) Antioxidant activity of peanut plant tissues. Master Thesis, North Carolina State University.
[14] Ciocan, I.D. and B?ra, I. (2007) Plant products and antimicrobial agents. Universitatii ale ?tiin?ifice Analele Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Tom VIII.
[15] Manoharachary, C. and Gourinath, A. (1988) Effects of plant extracts on four pathogenic fungi. 5th International Congress of Plant Pathology, Kyoto.
[16] Bandara, B.M.R., Kumar, N.S. and Samaranayake, K.M.S. (1989) An antifungal constituent from the stembark of Butea monosperma. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 25, 73-75. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(89)90046-9
[17] Noriel, L.M. and Robles, R.P. (1990) Fungicidal activity of Portulaca oleracea extract against Helminthosporium maydis Wisik and Miyake in corn (Zea mays L.). Philippine Journal of Weed Science, 17, 26-32.
[18] Natarajan, M.R. and Lalithakumari, D. (1987) Antifungal activity of the leaf extract of Lawsonia inermis on Dreschslera oryzae. Indian Phytopathology, 40, 390-395.
[19] Nduagu, C., Ekefan, E.J. and Nwankiti, A.O. (2008) Effect of some crude plant extracts on growth of Colletotrichum capsici (Synd) Butler & Bisby, causal agent of pepper anthracnose. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 6, 184-190.
[20] Dharam, V. and Sharma R.K. (1985) Efficacy of fungicides XXIX studies on the fungicidal properties of neem oil. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 3, 241-242.
[21] Mishra, A.K., Dwivedi, S.K. and Kishore, N. (1989) Antifungal activity of some essential oils. National Academy Science Letters, 12, 335-336.
[22] Upadhyaya, M.R. and Gupta, R.C. (1990) Effect of extracts of some medicinal plants on the growth of Curvularia lunata. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 20, 144-145.
[23] Yegen, O., Begger, B. and Heitefuss, R. (1992) Studies on the fungitoxic effect for extracts of six selected plants from Turkey on phytopathogenic fungi. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschütz, 99, 349-359.
[24] Bhattiprolu, S.L. and Bhattiprolu, G.R. (2006) Management of castor grey rot disease using botanical and biological agents. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 34, 101-104.
[25] Patil, M.J., Ukey, S.P. and Raut, B.T. (2001) Evaluation of fungicides and botanicals for the management of early blight (Alternaria solani) of tomato. PKV Research Journal, 25, 49-51.
[26] Srinivas, T., Rao, M.S., Reddy, P.S. and Reddy, P.N. (1997) Integrated management of leaf spot of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) with botanicals and chemicals. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 104, 528-530.
[27] Surwase, A.G., Badgire, D.R. and Suryawanshi, A.P. (2009) Management of pea powdery mildew by fungicides, botanicals and bio-agents. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 17, 384-388.
[28] Bhosale, M.V., Perne, R.R.; Shete, M.H. and Pawar, N.B. (2008) Efficacy of botanicals, bioagents and fungicides on management of leaf blight (Alternaria porri) of onion. Journal of Plant Disease Sciences, 3, 88-89.
[29] Tripathi, P., Dubey, N.K. and Shukla, A.K. (2008) Use of some essential oils as post harvest botanical fungicides in the management of grey mould of grapes caused by Botrytis cinerea. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24, 39-46. doi:10.1007/s11274-007-9435-2
[30] Kandhari, J. (2007) Management of sheath blight of rice through fungicides and botanicals. Indian Phytopathology, 60, 214-217.
[31] Muthamilan, M. and Revathy, N. (2007) Management of tungro virus disease of rice with antagonists and botanicals. Journal of Ecobiology, 19, 81-88.
[32] Sunder, S., Singh, R. and Dodan, D.S. (2005) Management of bacterial blight of rice with botanical extracts and non-conventional chemicals. Plant Disease Research, 20, 12-17.
[33] Sitara, U., Naseem, J. and Sultana, N. (2008) Antifungal effect of essential oils on in vitro growth of pathogenic fungi. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 40, 409-414.
[34] Arroyo, F.T., Moreno, J., Daza P., Boianova, L. and Romero, F. (2007) Antifungal activity of strawberry fruit volatile compounds against Colletotrichum acutatum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 14, 5701- 5707. doi:10.1021/jf0703957
[35] Vaughan, S.F., Spenser, G.F. and Shasha, B.F. (1993) Volatile compounds from raspberry and strawberry fruit inhibit postharvest decay fungi. Journal of Food Science, 58, 793-796. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb09360.x
[36] Naidu, G.P. (1988) Antifungal activity in Codieum variegatum leaf extract. Current Science, 57, 502-503.
[37] Harish, S., Saravankumar, D. Ebenezar, E.G. and See tharaman, K. (2008) Use plant extracts and biocontrol agents for the management of brown spot disease in rice. BioControl, 53, 555-567. doi:10.1007/s10526-007-9098-9
[38] Taiga, A. (2009) Efficacy of selected plant extracts in the control of fungal dry rot of white yam (Dioscorea Rotundata) Tubers in Kogi State. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3, 310-313.
[39] Dorman, H.J.D. and Deans, S.G. (2000) Antimicrobial agents from plants: Antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 88, 308-316. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.00969.x
[40] Bajpai, V.K. and Kang, S.C. (2010) Antifungal activity of leaf essential oil and extract of Metaseqoia glystostro- boides Miki ex Hu. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 87, 327-336. doi:10.1007/s11746-009-1500-6
[41] Reddy, K.R.N., Reddy, C.S. and Muralidharan, K. (2009) Potential of botanicals and biocontrol agents on growth and aflotoxin production by Aspergillus flavus infecting rice grains. Food Control, 20, 173-178. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2008.03.009
[42] Enikuomehin, O.A. (2005) Cercospora leaf spot disease management in Seasame (Seasamum indicum L.) with plant extracts. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 43, 19-23.
[43] Abd-Alla, M.A., El Mohamedi, R.S.R. and Badeaa, R.I. (2006) Effect on some volatile compounds on black mould disease on onions bulbs during storage. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 2, 384- 390.
[44] Kowalska, B. and Smolinska, U. (2008) The effect of selected plant materials and extract on the development of bacterial disease on onion. Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin, 68, 33-45. doi:10.2478/v10032-008-0003-6
[45] Suleiman, M.N. and Emua, S.A. (2009) Efficacy of four plant extract in the control of root rot disease of cow pea (Vigna unguiculata Linn. Walp). African Journal of Biotechnology, 8, 3806-3808.
[46] Choi, G.J., Jang, K.S., Kim, J.S., Lee, S.W., Cho, J.Y., Cho, K.Y. and Kim, J.C. (2004) In vivo fungal activity of 57 plant extracts against six plant pathogenic fungi. Plant Pathology Journal, 20, 184-191.
[47] Hadizadeh, I., Peivastegan, B. and Hamzehzarghani, H. (2009) Antifungal activity of essential oil from some medicinal plants of Iran against Aletrnarea alternata. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 6, 857-861. doi:10.3844/ajassp.2009.857.861
[48] Satish, S., Raveesha, K.A. and Janardhana, G.R. (1999) Antibacterial activities of plant extract on phytopathogenic Xanthomonos compestris pathovars. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 28, 145-147. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00479.x
[49] Suprapta, D.N. and Khalimi, K. (2009) Efficacy of plant extract formulation to suppress stem rot disease on vanilla seedlings. ISSA Journal, 15, 34-41.
[50] Okigbo, R.N. and Ogbonnaya, U.O. (2006) Antifungal effect of two tropical plants leaf extracts (Ossimum gratissimum and Aframomum meleguata) on post harvest yam (Diascorea spp.) rot. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5, 727-731.
[51] Atawodi, S.E. and Atawodi, J.C. (2009) Azadirachta indica (neem) a plant of microbial and pharmacological activity. Phytochemistry Reviews, 8, 601-620. doi:10.1007/s11101-009-9144-6

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.