Message Strategy Effects for Risk-Reduction Campaigns during Health Crises


Advertising campaigns carried out by firms post-health crises have been well documented in the literature, but the results, in terms of their effectiveness in recovering demand, are mixed. This paper examines the effect of risk-framed message appeal (aimed at reducing uncertainty about a product by elaborating upon new safety controls) on reductions in losses resulting from crises in comparison. The article develops a model that accounts for the effects of health crises and advertising with different information on sales. Using real market data, the study empirically shows that the choice of a risk-reduction advertising campaign has no significant on sales.

Share and Cite:

A. Heiman, J. Hornik and O. Lowengart, "Message Strategy Effects for Risk-Reduction Campaigns during Health Crises," Journal of Service Science and Management, Vol. 5 No. 1, 2012, pp. 77-86. doi: 10.4236/jssm.2012.51010.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] S. R. Herrmann and S. Krischik-Bautz, “Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Generic Promotion of Beef: An Analysis for Quality from Bavaria,” Agribusiness, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2002, pp. 369-385. doi:10.1002/agr.10022
[2] K. D. Messer, H. Kaiser, C. Payne and B. Wansink, “Ad- vertising Could Calm Food Safety Fears,” 2006.
[3] J. M. Pennings, B. Wansink and M. T. G. Meulenberg, “A Note on Modeling Consumer Reactions to a Crisis: The Case of the Mad Cow Disease,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2002, pp. 91- 100. doi:10.1016/S0167-8116(02)00050-2
[4] M. Dutta, “Health Information Processing from Televi- sion,” Health Communication, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2007, pp. 1-9. doi:10.1080/10410230701283256
[5] M. Rohem and A. Tybout, “Managing the Unthinkable: What to Do When Scandal Hits Your Brand,” In: B. Cal- der, Ed., Kellogg on Advertising & Media, John Wiley, New York, 2008, pp. 159-177.
[6] K. Braun-LaTour, A. Michael, S. LaTour and E. F. Loftus, “Is That a Finger in My Chili? Using Affective Advertising for Postcrisis Brand Repair,” Cornell Hotel and Restau- rant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2006, pp. 106-122. doi:10.1177/0010880405283623
[7] A. Tybout, B. J. Calder and B. Sternthal, “Using Informa- tion Processing Theory to Design Marketing Strategies,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1981, pp. 73-79. doi:10.2307/3151315
[8] M. E. Smith, E. O. van Rosenswaay and S. R. Thompson, “Sales Loss Determination in Food Contamination Inci- dents: An Application to Milk Bans in Hawaii,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 70, No. 3, 1988, pp. 513-520. doi:10.2307/1241489
[9] D. G. and I. E. Strand, “Avoidance Costs Associated with Imperfect Information: The Case of Kepone,” Land Eco- nomics, Vol. 57, No. 1, 1981, pp. 139-150.
[10] H. W. Kinnucan, H. Xiao, C. Hsia and J. D. Jackson, “Effects of Health Information and Generic Advertising on US Meat Demand,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 79, No. 1, 1997, pp. 13-24. doi:10.2307/1243939
[11] S. J. Liu, C. Huang and G. L. Brown, “Information and Risk Perception: A Dynamic Adjustment Process,” Risk Analysis, Vol. 18, No. 6, 1988, pp. 689-699. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.1998.tb01113.x
[12] T. L. Marsh, T. C. Schroeder and J. Mintert, “Impacts of Meat Product Recalls on Consumer Demand in The USA,” Applied Economics, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2004, pp. 897-909. doi:10.1080/0003684042000233113
[13] W. Verbeke and R. W. Ward, “A Fresh Meat Almost Ideal Demand System Incorporating Negative TV Press and Advertising Impact,” Agricultural Economics, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2001, pp. 359-374. doi:10.1111/j.1574-0862.2001.tb00215.x
[14] A. Keller, “Regulatory Focus on Efficacy of Health Mes- sages,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2006, pp. 109-114. doi:10.1086/504141
[15] M. Lee and S. Bicard, “Effective Message Design Tar- geting at Rebellious Risk-Taking Students,” Health Com- munication, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2006, pp. 299-308. doi:10.1207/s15327027hc2003_9
[16] L. Block and P. Keller, “When to Accenturate the Nega- tive: The Effect of Perceived Efficacy and Message Fram- ing on Intentions to Perform a Health Related Behavior,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1995, pp. 192-203. doi:10.2307/3152047
[17] J. Kim, G. M. Allenby and P. E. Rossi, “Modeling Con- sumer Demand for Variety,” Marketing Science, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2002, pp. 229-250. doi:10.1287/mksc.
[18] M. Mazzocchi, “No News Is Good News: Stochastic Pa- rameters versus Media Coverage Incidences on Demand Models after Food Scare,” American Journal of Agricul- tural Economics, Vol. 88, No. 3, 2006, pp. 727-741. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8276.2006.00891.x
[19] A. Heiman and O. Lowengart, “The Effect of Information about Health Hazards on Demand in Frequently Pur- chased Commodities,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2008, pp. 310-318. doi:10.1016/j.ijresmar.2008.07.002
[20] A. Bocker and C. H. Hanf, “Confidence Lost and Partially Regained: Consumer Response to Food Scares,” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2000, pp. 471-485. doi:10.1016/S0167-2681(00)00131-1
[21] D. R. Just, ”Information, Processing Capacity, and Judg- ment Bias in Risk Assessment,” In: R. Just and R. Pope, Eds., A Comprehensive Assessment of the Role of Risk in US Agriculture, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Dordrecht, London, 2002, pp. 43-67.
[22] P. Ferrier and R. Lamb, “Government Regulation and Quality in the US Beef Market,” Food Policy, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2007, pp. 84-97. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2006.01.004
[23] A. Chakravarti and C. Janiszewski, “The Influence of Generic Advertising on Brand Preference,” Journal of Con- sumer Research, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2004, pp. 487-502. doi:10.1086/380284
[24] R. Horowitz, “Putting Meat on the American Table: Taste, Technology, Transformation,” John Hopkins, Baltimore and London, 2006
[25] J. M. Crespi, “Generic Advertising and Product Differen- tiation Revisited,” Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2007, pp. 76-92. doi:10.2202/1542-0485.1153
[26] R. W. Ward and B. L. Dixon,, “Effectiveness of Fluid Milk Advertising since the Dairy and Tobacco Adjust- ment Act of 1983,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 71, No. 3, 1989, pp. 730-739. doi:10.2307/1242029
[27] Kan-Naim (19.02.03), “Fish Growers Take Action to Re- cover Public Confidence.”
[28] V. Lubich, “The Ministry of Health Prohibits Consump- tion of Quacultured Fish and Raises Concerns in the In- dustry,” Ynet, 2003.
[29] O. Yefet, “Supermarkets Are Removing Their Fish Prod- ucts from Shelves,” 2003.
[30] Global Information Network, “Reports of Contaminated Soda Dry Up Coke, Pepsi Sales,” 2006.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.