The Global Kuznets Curve, 1969-2007


Noting increasing economic equality in three developed nations and using a theoretical economic model, Kuznets hypothesized that economic development was associated with initial increasing economic inequality followed by decreasing economic inequality. GDP and population data (1969-2007) from 36 nations and regions, comprising the entire global economy and population, demonstrate a global Kuznets curve.

Share and Cite:

J. Riggs, J. Hobbs, G. Hobbs and T. Riggs, "The Global Kuznets Curve, 1969-2007," Modern Economy, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2012, pp. 160-163. doi: 10.4236/me.2012.32022.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] S. Kuznets, “Economic Growth and Income Inequality,” American Economic Review, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1955, pp. 1-28.
[2] S. Robinson, “A Note on the U Hypothesis Relating Income Inequality and Economic Development,” American Economic Review, Vol. 66, No. 3, 1976, pp. 437-440.
[3] M. Braulke, “A Note on Kuznets’ U,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 65, No. 1, 1983, pp. 135-139. doi:10.2307/1924418
[4] R. Ram, “Kuznets’s Inverted-U Hypothesis: Evidence from a Highly Developed Country,” Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 57, No. 11, 1991, pp. 1112-1123. doi:10.2307/1060338
[5] O. Galor and D. Tsiddon, “Income Distribution and Growth: The Kuznets Hypothesis Revisited,” Economica, Vol. 63, No. 250, 1996, pp. S103-S117. doi:10.2307/2554811
[6] T. P. Moran, “Kuznets’s Inverted U-Curve Hypothesis: The Rise, Demise, and Continued Relevance of a Socioeconomic Law,” Sociological Forum, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2005, pp. 209-244. doi:10.1007/s11206-005-4098-y
[7] G. Firebaugh, “The Trend in Between-Nation Income Inequality,” Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2000, pp. 323-339. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.323
[8] J. G. Williamson, “Globalization, Convergence, and History,” Journal of Economic History, Vol. 56, No. 2, 1996, pp. 277-306. doi:10.1017/S0022050700016454
[9] D. Park, “An Examination of Global Income Convergence,” Journal of Economic Development, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1997, pp. 43-55.
[10] S. Dobson and C. Ramlogan, “Is There an Openness Kuznets Curve?” Kyklos, Vol. 62, No. 2, 2009, pp. 226- 238. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6435.2009.00433.x
[11] D. Acemoglu and J.A. Robinson, “The Political Economy of the Kuznets Curve,” Review of Development Economics, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2002, pp. 183-203. doi:10.1111/1467-9361.00149

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.