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Clinical Evaluation of an Oral Electrolyte Solution Formulated Based on Strong Ion Difference (SID) and Using Propionate as the Organic Anion in the Treatment of Neonatal Diarrheic Calves with Strong Ion Acidosis

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DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.21006    6,044 Downloads   11,294 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Background: It is postulated that the concentrations of the major strong ions (Na, K, and Cl) in oral electrolyte solutions play a major role in clinical efficacy of these solutions for rehydration and corrections of metabolic acid base derangements. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test prospectively the efficacy of an OES (OESexp) formulated based on concentration of strong ion difference (SID) and propionate in a group of calves with naturally occurring neonatal diarrhea and clinically detectable dehydration and acid base abnormalities. Animals: Ten client owned calves of varying breeds, 2 - 22 days old, presented to a veterinary teaching hospital with a history of naturally occurring acute undifferentiated diarrhea, progressive depression and dehydration for treatment. Methods: Clinical and laboratory parameters were measured pre and post two oral electrolyte treatments to assess efficacy of the experimental OES to correct clinical and clinico pathological parameters. For the clinical trial the calves served as their own controls. For control of safety of medication 4 normal calves were force fed 4 L of OESexp and followed over a 24 hour period. Results: All calves had severe diarrhea and metabolic acidosis. The metabolic acidosis observed in the plasma of these calves and reflected by pH, HCO3- SID and base deficit was corrected significantly towards reference ranges (p < 0.05) with two 2 L feedings 12 hours apart. Dehydration was significantly corrected and all calves were discharged 1 - 3 days post admission. Conclusion and Clinical Importance: The use of SID is a valid approach when formulating oral electrolytes solutions for use in calves with acute diarrhea and metabolic derangement. Sodium propionate is valid substitute for commonly used sodium base equivalents in North America in oral electrolyte solutions.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

H. Stampfli, O. Oliver and J. Pringle, "Clinical Evaluation of an Oral Electrolyte Solution Formulated Based on Strong Ion Difference (SID) and Using Propionate as the Organic Anion in the Treatment of Neonatal Diarrheic Calves with Strong Ion Acidosis," Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2012, pp. 34-39. doi: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.21006.

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