Characterization of Health and Environmental Risks of Pesticide Use in Market-Gardening in the Rural City of Tori-Bossito in Benin, West Africa


A study on the use of pesticides in market-gardening production was carried out on 108 market-gardeners in the rural city of Tori-Bossito in Southern Benin. The objective of the study was to characterize the potential risks of pesticides usage by farmers and the impacts on their health and on the environment. Two risk indexes were calculated for each pesticide: an environmental risk index (ERI) and a health risk index (HRI). First stage larva of the mosquito Aedes aegypti were used as bio-indicator for detecting insecticide residue in vegetable before their harvesting on the farms. The highest ERI were obtained for carbofuran, chlorpyriphos ethyl and endosulfan. Pesticide residues were found in 42% of the samples of leaves of eggplant, cucumber, amaranth and solanum. Vegetables growers used pesticides that may be highly hazardous and which were not registered in most cases. These situations could have unexpected consequences including the exposure of consumers to health hazards.

Share and Cite:

C. Ahouangninou, T. Martin, P. Edorh, S. Bio-Bangana, O. Samuel, L. St-Laurent, S. Dion and B. Fayomi, "Characterization of Health and Environmental Risks of Pesticide Use in Market-Gardening in the Rural City of Tori-Bossito in Benin, West Africa," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2012, pp. 241-248. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.33030.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] FAO, “International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides,” FAO, Rome, 1986.
[2] M. Sanborn, D. Cole, K. Kerr, C. Akil, L. H. Sanin and K. Bassil, “Pesticides Literature Review,” Ontario College of Family Physicians, Toronto, 2004.
[3] J. A. Tomenson and G. A. Matthews, “Causes and Types of Health Effects during the Use of Crop Protection Chemicals: Data from a Survey of over 6300 Smallholder Applicators in 24 Different Countries,” International Archives of Occupational Environmental Health, Vol. 82, No. 8, 2009, pp. 935-949. doi:10.1007/s00420-009-0399-4
[4] D. Pimentel, H. Acquay, M. Biltonem, P. Rice, M. Silva, J. Nelson, S. Lipner, S. Giordan, A. Horowitz and M. D’Amore, “Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Pesticide Use,” In: D. Pimentel and H. Lehman, Eds., The Pesticides Question, Environment, Economics and Ethics, Routledge, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1993.
[5] I. Cissé, A. A. Tandia, S. T. Fall and E. H. S. Diop, “Usage Incontr?lé des Pesticides en Agriculture Périurbaine: Cas de la Zone de Niayes au Sénégal,” Cahiers Agricultures, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2003, pp. 181-186.
[6] S. K. Traoré, K. Mamadou, A. Dembele, P. Lafrance, P. Mazelliert and P. Houenou, “Contamination de l’Eau Souterraine par les Pesticides en Régions Agricoles en C?te-d’Ivoire (Centre, Sud et Sud Ouest),” Journal Africain des Sciences de l’Environnement, Vol. 1, 2006, pp. 1-9.
[7] F. Assogba-Komlan, P. Anihouvi, E. Achigan, R. Sikirou, A. Boko, C. Adje, V. Ahle, R. Vodouhe and A. Assa, “Pratiques Culturales et Teneur en Eléments Antinutritionnels (Nitrates et pesticides) du Solanum macrocarpon au Sud du Bénin,” Africain Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Developement, Vol. 7, 2007, pp. 1-21.
[8] C. Ahouangninou, B. E. Fayomi and T. Martin, “Evaluation des Risques Sanitaires et Environnementaux des Pratiques Phytosanitaires des Producteurs Mara?chers dans la Commune Rurale de Tori-Bossito (Sud-Bénin),” Cahiers Agricultures, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2011, pp. 216-222. doi:10.1684/agr.2011.0485
[9] O. Samuel, S. Dion, L. St Laurent and M. H. April, “Indicateur de Risque des Pesticides du Québec-IRPeQ Santé et Environnement Québec,” Ministère de l’Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l’Alimentation/Ministère de Développement Durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs/Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Québec, 2007
[10] Wise & Loveys Information Services Ltd., “The e-Pesticide Manual 2000-2001 (Twelve Edition),” Version 2.0 Editor: CDS Tomlin; British Crop Protection Council.
[11] University of Hertfordshire, “Base de Données FOOTPRINT PPDB sur les Propriétés des Pesticides,” FOOTPRINT: Des Outils Innovant Pour l’Evaluation et la Réduction du Risque Pesticides, 2008,
[12] Ministère de l’Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l’Alimentation du Québec, “Base de données SAgE Pesticides,” 2009.
[13] T. Martin, F. Chandre, J. Chabi, P. F. Guillet, M. Akogbeto and J. M. Hougard, “A Biological Test to Quantify Pyrethrinoid in Impregnated Nets,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2007, pp. 1-6.
[14] WHO, “The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification,” 2005.
[15] PAN and IPEN, “Interdiction de l’Endosulfan dans les Pays du Sahel en Afrique de l’Ouest,” Octobre 2008.
[16] US EPA, “Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Endosulfan,” November 2002.
[17] P. Ton, S. Tovigan and S. D. Vodouhe, “Intoxications et Morts au Bénin par l’Endosulfan,” In: Pesticides & Alternatives. Bulletin de Pesticide Action Network Africa, N. 10-Avril, 2000.
[18] N. Bonnard, D. Jargot, M. Falcy, A. Fastier, S. Oudar and M. O. Rambourg, “Mancozèbe. Fiche Toxicologique,” INRS/AFSSA, France, 2010, 8 Pages.
[19] K. Hibar, M. Daami-Remadi and M. El Mahjoud, “Effets de Certains Fongicides de Synthèse et Biologiques sur la Croissance Mycélienne et l’Agressivité de Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. radicis-lycopersici,” Tropicultura, Vol. 25, 2007, pp. 146-152.
[20] K. Boutin, J. Champagne and K. Grenier, “Indice de Risque et Registre des Pesticides SECTEUR AGRICOLE (IRPeQ-Express),” 2009.
[21] H. M. G. Van der Werf, “Assessing the Impact of Pesticides on the Environment,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, Vol. 60, No. 2, 1996, pp. 81-96.
[22] J. Devillers, R. Farret, P. Girardin, J. L. Rivière and G. Soulas, “Indicateurs Pour Evaluer les Risques Liés à l’Utilisation des Pesticides,”Editions Tec&Doc Lavoisier, Paris, 2007.
[23] F. Giuseppe, E. Rahn and C. R. Binder, “Testing Environmental and Health Pesticide Use Risk Indicators, the Case of Potato Production in Boyacá, Colombia,” Conference on International Research on Food Security, Natural Resources Management and Rural Development, Zurich, September 2010, Tropentag 2010, pp. 14-16.
[24] UE, “Journal Officiel de l’Union Européenne,” Législation du 28 mai 2011.
[25] E. Y. A. Pazou, M. Boko, C. A. M. Van Gestel, H. Ahissou, P. Laleye, S. Akpona, B. Van Hattum, K. Swart and N. M. Van Straalen, “Organochlorine and Organophosphorous Pesticide Residues in the Ouémé River Catchment in the Republic of Benin,” Environment International, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2006, pp. 616-623.
[26] E. Y. A. Pazou, P. Laleye, M. Boko, C. A. M. Van Gestel, H. Ahissou, S. Akpona, B. Van Hattum, K. Swart and N. M. Van Straalen, “Contamination of Fish by Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Ouémé River Catchment in the Republic of Bénin,” Environment International, Vol. 32, 2006, pp. 594-599.
[27] T. Martin, F. Assogba-Komlan, T. Houndete, J. M. Hougard and F. Chandre, “Efficacy of Mosquito Netting for Sustainable Small Holders’ Cabbage Production in Africa,” Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 99, No. 2, 2006, pp. 450-454. doi:10.1603/0022-0493-99.2.450
[28] S. Licciardi, F. Assogba-Komlan, I. Sidick, F. Chandre, J. M. Hougard and T. Martin, “A Temporary Tunnel Screen as an Eco-Friendly Method for Small-Scale Growers to Protect Cabbage Crop in Benin,” International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, Vol. 27, No. 3-4, 2007, pp. 152-158.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.