A Vietnamese version of the 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14VN)


Aim: To validate a Vietnamese short version (OHIP- 14VN) for use in epidemiological studies. Methods: The original English-language version was translated into Vietnamese, back translated and after some revisions tested for psychometric properties. Subjects (n = 724) were asked to self-administer a questionnaire but could ask for assistance. Convergent validity was tested by investigating associations between OHIP domain and total scores, and dichotomized self-reported satisfaction with 1) the dentition in general, 2) chewing function, and 3) esthetics. Groups validity was evaluated by comparing OHIP scores of subjects having ≤6 molars vs. >6 molars and tooth decay vs. no decay. Test-retest reliability was investigated in a convenience sample (n = 54) and expressed in Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs). Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and average interitem correlation coefficients. Results: Validity: all associations were in the hypothesized directions. Differences in mean OHIP total were statistically sig-nificant for all discriminative variables. OHIP scores completed with assistance were significantly lower than those from self-administered questionnaires and therefore analyzed separately. For both administration formats differences in mean scores were still significant for “satisfaction” but for having ≤6 molars or decay the differences lost significance for most domain and total scores. Reliability: ICCs ranged from 0.54 - 0.74. Internal consistency: Cronbach’s alphas for OHIP total scores were 0.93 (self-administered) and 0.91 (with assistance). Average interitem correlation coefficients ranged from 0.26 - 0.67 (self-administered) and 0.28 - 0.69 (with assistance). Conclusions: This Vietnamese version of the OHIP-14 demonstrated good construct validity and acceptable reliability for OHIP total scores however OHIP-14VN domain scores should be interpreted with caution.

Share and Cite:

Gerritsen, A. , Nguyen, T. , Witter, D. , Bronkhorst, E. and Creugers, N. (2012) A Vietnamese version of the 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14VN). Open Journal of Epidemiology, 2, 28-35. doi: 10.4236/ojepi.2012.21005.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Allen, P.F. (2003) Assessment of oral health related quality of life. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1, 40. http://www.hqlo.com/content/1/1/40
[2] Locker, D. and Allen, P.F. (2007) What do measures of “oral health-related quality of life” measure? Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology, 35, 401-411. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00418.x
[3] Brondani, M.A. and MacEntee, M.I. (2007) The concept of validity in soci-odental indicators and oral health-re- lated quality-of-life measures. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology, 35, 472-478. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2006.00361.x
[4] Locker, D. (1988) Measuring oral health: A conceptual framework. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology, 5, 3-18.
[5] Slade, G.D. and Spencer, A.J. (1994) Development and evaluation of the oral health impact profile. Community Dental Health, 11, 3-11.
[6] John, M.T., Patrick, D.L. and Slade, G.D. (2002) The German version of the oral health impact profile— Trans-lation and psychometric properties. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 110, 425-433. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0722.2002.21363.x
[7] Larsson, P., List, T., Lundstrom, I., Marcusson, A. and Ohrbach, R. (2004) Re-liability and validity of a Swedish version of the oral health impact profile (OHIP-S). Acta Odontologica Scandinavia, 62, 147-152. doi:10.1080/00016350410001496
[8] Pires, C.P., Ferraz, M.B. and de Abreu, M.H. (2006) Translation into Brazilian Portuguese, cultural adaptation and validation of the oral health impact profile (OHIP-49). Brazilian Oral Research, 20, 263-268. doi:10.1590/S1806-83242006000300015
[9] van der Meulen, M.J., John, M.T., Naeije, M. and Lobbezoo, F. (2008) The Dutch version of the oral health impact profile (OHIP-NL): Translation, reliability and construct validity. BMC Oral Health, 8, 11. doi:10.1186/1472-6831-8-11
[10] Wong, M.C., Lo, E.C. and McMillan, A.S. (2002) Validation of a Chinese version of the oral health impact profile (OHIP). Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology, 30, 423-430. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0528.2002.00013.x
[11] Slade, G.D. (1997) Derivation and validation of a short- form oral health impact profile. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology, 25, 284-290. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.1997.tb00941.x
[12] Ravaghi, V., Farrahi-Avval, N., Locker, D. and Underwood, M. (2010) Va-lidation of the Persian short version of the oral health impact profile (OHIP-14). Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry, 8, 229-235.
[13] Fernandes, M.J., Ruta, D.A., Ogden, G.R., Pitts, N.B. and Ogston, S.A. (2006) Assessing oral health-related quality of life in general dental practice in Scotland: Validation of the OHIP-14. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology, 34, 53-62. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2006.00254.x
[14] John, M.T., Mig-lioretti, D.L., LeResche, L., Koepsell, T.D., Hujoel, P. and Micheelis, W. (2006) German short forms of the oral health impact profile. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology, 34, 277-288. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2006.00279.x
[15] Kushnir, D., Zusman, S.P. and Robinson, P.G. (2004) Validation of a He-brew version of the oral health impact profile 14. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 64, 71-75. doi:10.1111/j.1752-7325.2004.tb02730.x
[16] Rener-Sitar, K., Petricevic, N., Celebic, A. and Marion, L. (2008) Psychometric properties of Croatian and Slovenian short form of oral health impact profile questionnaires. Croatian Medical Journal, 49, 536-544. doi:10.3325/cmj.2008.4.536
[17] Saub, R., Locker, D. and Allison, P. (2005) Derivation and validation of the short version of the Malaysian oral health impact profile. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology, 33, 378-383. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2005.00242.x
[18] Guillemin, F., Bombardier, C. and Beaton, D. (1993) Cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures: Literature review and proposed guidelines. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 46, 1417-1432. doi:10.1016/0895-4356(93)90142-N
[19] Nguyen T.C., Witter D.J., Bronkhorst E.M., Truong N.B. and Creugers N.H.J. (2010) Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam—A cross-sectional epidemiological study. BMC Oral Health, 10, 2. doi:10.1186/1472-6831-10-2
[20] World Health Organization. (1997) Indices and methods for measurement of dental diseases, WHO oral health surveys. http://www.whocollab.od.mah.se/expl/methods.html
[21] Bartko, J.J. (1966) The intraclass correlation coefficient as a measure of reliability. Psychological Reports, 19, 3-11. doi:10.2466/pr0.1966.19.1.3
[22] Fleiss, J.L. (1986) The de-sign and analysis of clinical experiments. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
[23] Bland, J.M. and Altman, D.G. (1997) Cron-bach’s alpha. British Medical Journal, 314, 572. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7080.572
[24] Clark, L.A. and Watson, D. (1995) Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7, 309-319. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.7.3.309
[25] General Statistics Office of Vietnam. http://www.gso.gov.vn/default_en.aspx?tabid=483&idmid=4&ItemID=4343
[26] Puhan, M. A., Ahuja, A., Van Natta, M. L., Ackatz, L. E., and Meinert, C. (2011) Interviewer versus self-admini- stered health-related quality of life question-naires—Does it matter? Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 9, 30. doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-30
[27] Bowling, A. (2005) Mode of questionnaire administration can have serious effects on data quality, Journal of Public Health (Oxf), 27, 281-291. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdi031
[28] Robinson, P.G., Gibson, B., Khan, F.A. and Birnbaum, W. (2001) A comparison of OHIP 14 and OIDP as interviews and questionnaires. Community Dental Health, 18, 144- 149.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.