Relationship between Mindfulness and Psychological Adjustment in Soldiers According to Their Confrontation with Repeated Deployments and Stressors
Marion Trousselard, Dominique Steiler, Damien Claverie, Frédéric Canini
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31016   PDF    HTML     6,828 Downloads   13,151 Views   Citations


Although interest in incorporating mindfulness into medical interventions is growing, data on the relationships between mindfulness, stress and coping in military personnel is still scarce. This report investigates the relationship between psychological adjustment and mindfulness in soldiers according to their repeated deployments and confrontations with stressors. Our findings indicate that soldiers’ mindfulness levels were in the range of the middle-aged civilian working population, and were negatively correlated with emotional disturbance measures, and positively correlated with their subjective assessments of their own well-being. Individuals confronted with conflict deployments and stressors recorded lower mindfulness scores, and appeared high in emotional disturbance measures.

Share and Cite:

Trousselard, M. , Steiler, D. , Claverie, D. & Canini, F. (2012). Relationship between Mindfulness and Psychological Adjustment in Soldiers According to Their Confrontation with Repeated Deployments and Stressors. Psychology, 3, 100-115. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.31016.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Aftanas, L. I., & Golosheykine, S. A. (2005). Impact of regular meditation practice on EEG activity at rest and during evoked negative emotions. International Journal of Neuroscience, 115, 893-909. doi:10.1080/00207450590897969
[2] Aftanas, L. I., & Golocheikine, S. A. (2001). Human anterior and frontal midline theta and lower alpha reflect emotionally positive state and internalized attention: High resolution EEG investigation of meditation. Neuroscience Letters, 310, 57-60. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(01)02094-8
[3] Aftanas, L. I., & Golocheikine, S. A. (2002). Non-linear dynamic complexity of the human EEG during meditation. Neuroscience Letters, 330, 143-146. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(02)00745-0
[4] Alport, G. W. (1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
[5] Arrindell, W. A., Sanavio, E., & Sica, C. (2002). Introducing a short form version of the Scale of Interpersonal Behaviour (s-SIB) for use in Italy. Psicoterapia Cognitiva e Comportamentale, 8, 3-18.
[6] Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11, 191-206. doi:10.1177/1073191104268029
[7] Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, L., Toney, L., et al., (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27-45. doi:10.1177/1073191105283504
[8] Bagby, R. M., Parker, J. D., & Taylor, G. J. (1994). The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale-I. Item selection and cross validation of factor structure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 23-32. doi:10.1016/0022-3999(94)90005-1
[9] Bagby, R. M., Taylor, G. J., & Parker, J. D. (1994). The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale-II. Convergent, discriminant, and con- current validity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 33-40. doi:10.1016/0022-3999(94)90006-X
[10] Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122-147. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.37.2.122
[11] Bauermeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Inter- personal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, 1-44. doi:10.1111/1529-1006.01431
[12] Bergdahl, J., & Bergdahl, M. (2002). Perceived stress in adults: prevalence and association of depression, anxiety, and medication in Swedish population. Stress and Health, 18, 235-241. doi:10.1002/smi.946
[13] Berthoz, S., Consoli S., Perez-Diaz, F., & Jouvent, R. (1999). Alexithymia and anxiety: compounded relationships? A psychomet- ric study. European Psychiatry, 14, 372-378. doi:10.1016/S0924-9338(99)00233-3
[14] Bjelland, I., Krokstad, S., Mykletun, A., Dahl, A. A., Tell, G. S., & Tambs, K. (2008). Does a higher educational level protect against anxiety and depression? The HUNT study. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1334-1345. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.12.019
[15] Brefczynski-Lewis, J. A., Lutz, A., Schaefer, H. S., Levinson, D. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 11483- 11488. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606552104
[16] Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822-848. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822
[17] Bydlowski, S., Corcos, M., Jeammet, P., Paterniti, S., Berthoz, S., Laurier, C., Chambry, J., & Consoli S. (2005). Emotion-processing deficits in eating disorders. International Journal on Eating Disor- ders, 37, 321-329. doi:10.1002/eat.20132
[18] Campbell-Sills, L., Cohan, S. L., & Stein, M. B. (2006). Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 585-599. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2005.05.001
[19] Carter, J. A., Herbst, J. H., Stoller, K. B., King, V. L., Kidorf, M. S., Costa Jr., P. T., & Brooner, R. K. (2001). Short-term stability of NEO-PI-R personality trait scores in opioid-dependent outpatients. Psychology of Addictive Behaviours, 15, 255-260. doi:10.1037/0893-164X.15.3.255
[20] Cattell, R. B. Cattell, A. K., Cattell, H. E. P., & Kelly, M. L. (1999) The 16PF select manual. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.
[21] Cerclé, A., Gadea, C., Hartmann, A., & Lourel, M. (2008). Typological and factor analysis of the perceived stress measure by using the PSS scale. European Review of Applied Psychology, 58, 227-239. doi:10.1016/j.erap.2008.09.006
[22] Cohen, J. (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral. Sciences. Hillsdale, NY: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
[23] Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 24, 385- 396. doi:10.2307/2136404
[24] Chunping, N., Xiwen, L., Qianzhen, H., Aili, L., Bo, W., & Yongping, Y. (2010). Relationship between coping, self-esteem, individual factors and mental health among Chinese nursing students: A matched case—Control study. Nurse Education Today, 30, 338-343.
[25] Corcos, M., & Sperenza, M. (2003). Psychopathologie de l'alexithymie Approche des troubles de la régulation affective. [Psychopathology of alexithymia: the affective regulation of the symptoms]. Collection: Psychothérapies, Dunod.
[26] Corrigan, P. W., & Penn, D. L. (1999). Lessons from social psychology on discrediting psychiatric stigma. American Psychiatry, 54, 765-776. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.54.9.765
[27] Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) ant the five NEO-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI): professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Re- sources.
[28] Cox, B. J., Endler, N. S., & Swinson, R. P. (1991). Clinical and non clinical panic arracks: An empirical test of panic-anxiety continuum. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 5, 21-34. doi:10.1016/0887-6185(91)90014-K
[29] Davidson, R. J. (2004).Well-being and affective style: Neural substrates and biobehavioural correlates. Philosophical transactions of the Royal society of London. Series B, 359, 1395-1411.
[30] de Timary, P., Luts, A., Hers, D., & Luminet, O. (2008). Absolute and relative stability of alexithymia in alcoholic impatients undergoing alcohol withdrawal: Relationship to depression and anxiety. Psy- chiatry Research, 15, 105-113. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2006.12.008
[31] Dirkzwager, A. J. E., Bramsen, I., & Ploeg, H. M. (2003). Social support, coping, life events, and posttraumatic stress symptoms among former peacekeepers: A prospective study. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 1545-1559. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00198-8
[32] Dobkin, P. (2008). Mindfulness-based stress reductin: What processes are at work? Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14, 8-16. doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2007.09.004
[33] Eifert, G. H., & Heffner, M. (2003). The effects of acceptance versus control contexts on avoidance of panic-related symptoms. Journal of Behavioural Therapy and Exploratory Psychology, 34, 293-312. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2003.11.001
[34] Endler, N. S., & Kocovski, N. L. (2001). State and trait anxiety revisited. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 15, 231-245. doi:10.1016/S0887-6185(01)00060-3
[35] Endler N. S., & Parker J. D. A. (1999). Coping inventory for stressful situations (CISS) manual (2nd Edition). Toronto, Canada: Multi- Health Systems.
[36] Engelhard, I. M., Van den Hout, M. A., & Schouten, E. G. W. (2006). Neuroticism and low educational level predictive for the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder in women after miscarriage or stillbirth. General hospital psychiatry, 28, 414-417. doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2006.07.001
[37] Farb, N. A. S., Segal, Z. V., Mayberg, H., Bean, J., McKeon, D., Fatima, Z., & Anderson, A. K. (2007). Attending to the present: Mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2, 313-322. doi:10.1093/scan/nsm030
[38] Fliege, H., Rose, M., Arck, P., Walter, O., Kocalevent, R., Weber, C. et al. (2005). The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) reconsidered: validation and reference value from different clinical and healthy adult samples. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 78-88. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000151491.80178.78
[39] Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. J. (1986); Emotional Processing of Fear: Exposure to Corrective Information. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 20-35.
[40] Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2004). Coping: Pitfalls and promise. Annual Review of psychology, 55, 745-774. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141456
[41] Friedman, H. S. (2000). Long-terms relations of personality and health: dynamisms, mechanisms, tropisms. Journal of Personality, 68, 1089- 1108. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00127
[42] Frewen, P. A., Lanius, R. A., Dozois, D. J. A., Neufeld, R. W. J., Pain, C., Hopper, J. W., Densmore, M., & Stevens, T. K. (2008). Clinical and neural correlates of alexithymia in PTSD. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 171-181. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.117.1.171
[43] Gaudreau, P., & Miranda, D. (2010). Coping across time, situations, and contexts: A conceptual and methodological overview of stability, consistency, and change. In A. Nicholls (Ed.), Coping in sport: Concepts, theories, and related construct (pp. 15-32). New York, NY: Nova Science.
[44] Germer, C. K., Siegel, R., & Fulton, P. (2005). Mindfulness and psychotherapy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
[45] Ginzburg, K., Ein-Dor, T., & Solomon, Z. (2010). Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression: A 20-year longitudinal study of war veterans. Journal of Affective Disorders, 123, 249-257. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.08.006
[46] Griffith, J. (2002). Multilevel analysis of cohesion’s relation to stress, well-being, identification, disintegration and perceived combat readi- ness. Military Psychology, 14, 217-239. doi:10.1207/S15327876MP1403_3
[47] Griffith, J., & Vaitkus, M. (1999). Relating cohesion to stress, strain, disintegration, and performance: An organizing framework. Military Psychology, 11, 27-55. doi:10.1207/s15327876mp1101_3
[48] Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57, 35-43. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00573-7
[49] Haviland, M. G., Shaw, D. G., Cummings, M. A., & MacMurray, J. P. (1988). Alexithymia: Subscales and relationship to depression. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 50, 164-170. doi:10.1159/000288115
[50] Hayes, SC, Strosahl, KD, & Wilson, KG. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
[51] Hendryx, M. S., Haviland, M. G., & Shaw, D. G. (1991). Dimensions of alexithymia and their relationships to anxiety and depression. Journal of Personality Assessment, 56, 227-237. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa5602_4
[52] Hendryx, M. S., Haviland, M. G., Shaw, D. G. & Henry, J. (1994). Alexithymia in women and men hospitalized for psychoactive substance dependence. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 35, 124-128. doi:10.1016/0010-440X(94)90056-N
[53] Honkalampi, K., Hintikka, J., Saarinen, P., Lehtonen, J., & Viinam?ki, H. (2000). Is alexithymia a permanent feature in depressed patients? Results from 6-month follow-up study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 69, 303-308. doi:10.1159/000012412
[54] Hori, H., Ozeki, Y., Teraishi, T., Matsuo, J., Kawamoto, Y., Kinoshita, Y., Suto, S., Terada, S., Higuchi, T., & Kunugi, H. (2010). Relationships between psychological distress, coping styles, and HPA axis reactivity in healthy adults. Journal of Psychiatry Research, 44, 865-873. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.02.007
[55] Horowitz, M. (1986). Stress response syndromes. Northvale, NJ: Aronson.
[56] Hoth, K. F., Christensen, A. J., Ehlers, S. L., Raichle, K. A., & Lawton, W. J. (2007). A longitudinal examination of social support, agreeableness, and depressive symptoms in chronic kidney disease. Journal of Behavioral Medecine, 30, 69-76. doi:10.1007/s10865-006-9083-2
[57] Ingraham, L. H., & Manning, F. J. (1981). Cohesion: Who needs it, what is it? Military Review, LXI, 2-12.
[58] Jha, A. P., Krompinger, J., Baime, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 109-119. doi:10.3758/CABN.7.2.109
[59] Jerram, K. L., & Coleman, P. G. (1999). The big five personality traits and reporting of health problems and health behaviour in old age. British Journal of Health Psychology, 4, 181-192. doi:10.1348/135910799168560
[60] Juster, R. P., McEwen, B. S., & Lupien, S. J. (2010). Allostatic load biomarkers of chronic stress and impact on health and cognition. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 2-16. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.10.002
[61] Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. New-York, NY: Delacourt.
[62] Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., Judge, T. A., & Scott, B. A. (2009). The role of core self-evaluations in the coping process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 177-195. doi:10.1037/a0013214
[63] Karukivi, M., Hautala, L., Kaleva, O., Haapasalo-Pesu, K. M., Liuksila, P. R., Joukamaa, M., & Saarij?rvi, S. (2010). Alexithymia is associated with anxiety among adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 125, 383-387. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.02.126
[64] Kohls, N., Sauer, S., & Walach, H. (2009). Facets of mindfulness— results of an online study investigating the Freiburg mindfulness inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 224-230. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.10.009
[65] Koolhaas, J. M., Korte, S. M., De Boer, S. F., Van Der Vegt, B. J., Van Reenen, C. G., Hopster, H., De Jong, I. C., Ruis, M. A., & Blokhuis, H. J. (1999). Coping styles in animals: Current status in behaviour and stress-physiology. Neurosciences Biobehavioral Review, 23, 925-935. doi:10.1016/S0149-7634(99)00026-3
[66] Lane, R. D., Sechrest, L., Riedel, R., Shapiro, D. E., & Kazniak, A. W. (2000). Pervasive emotion recognition deficit common to alexithymia and the repressive coping style. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 492-501.
[67] Lane, R. D., & Schwartz, G. E. (1987). Levels of emotional awareness: A cognitive-developmental theory and its application to psychopathology, American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 133-143.
[68] Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., Shapiro, S., & Carmody, J. (2006). The Toronto Mindfulness Scale: development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 1445-1467. doi:10.1002/jclp.20326
[69] Lazar, S. W., Kerr, C. E., Wasserman, R. H., Gray, J. R., Greve, D. N., Treadway, M. T., McGarvey, M., Quinn, B. T., Dusek, J. A., Benson, H., Rauch, S. L., Moore, C. I., & Fischl, B. (2005). Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport, 16, 1893-1897. doi:10.1097/01.wnr.0000186598.66243.19
[70] Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY: Springer.
[71] Lazarus, R.S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York, NY: Springer.
[72] Levitt, J. T., Brown, T. A., Orsillo, S. M., & Barlow, D. H. (2004). The effects of acceptance versus suppression of emotion on subjective and psychological response to carbon dioxide challenge in patients with panic disorder. Behavioral Therapy, 35, 747-766. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80018-2
[73] Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
[74] L?ckenhoff, C. E., Sutin, A. R., Ferruci, L., & Costa, P. T. (2008). Personality traits and subjective health in the later years: the association between NEO-PI-R and SF-36 in advanced ages is influenced by health status. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1334-1346. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2008.05.006
[75] Marshall, M. B., De Fruyt, F., Rolland, J. P., & Bagby, R. M. (2005). Socially desirable responding and the factorial stability of the NEO PI-R. Psychological Assessment, 17, 379-384. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.17.3.379
[76] Martínez-Sánchez, F., Ato-Garcia, M., Córcoles, E., Huedo, T., & Selva, J. (1998), Stability in the alexithymia levels: A longitudinal analysis of temporary series on various emotional answers. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 767-772. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(97)00239-0
[77] Martinez-Sanchez, F., Ato-Garcia, M., & Ortiz-Soria, B. (2003). Alexithymia—State or trait? Spanish Journal of Psychology, 6, 51- 59.
[78] Mc Ewen, B. S., & Stellar, E. (1993). Stress and the individual: Mecha- nisms leading to disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 153, 2093- 2101. doi:10.1001/archinte.1993.00410180039004
[79] Mikolajczak, M. & Luminet, O. (2006). Is alexithymia affected by situational stress or is it a stable trait related to emotion regulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1399-1408. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.10.020
[80] Orsillo, S. M., Roemer, L., Lerner, J. B., & Tull, M. T. (2004). Acceptance, mindfulness, and cognitive-behavioral therapy: comparisons, contrasts, and application to anxiety. In S. C. Hayes, V. M. Follette, & M. M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: expanding the cognitive-behavioural tradition (pp. 66-95). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
[81] Penley, J. A., Tomaka, J., & Wiebe, J. S. (2002). The association of coping to physical and psychological health outcomes: A meta-ana- lytic review. Journal of behavioural Medicine, 25, 551-603. doi:10.1023/A:1020641400589
[82] Porcelli, P., Leoci, C., Guerra, V., Taylor, G. J., & Bagby, R. M. (1996). A longitudinal study of alexithymia and psychological distress in inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 41, 569-573. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(96)00221-8
[83] Pruessner, J. C., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (1999) Low self-esteem, induced failure and the adrenocortical stress response. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 477-489. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00256-6
[84] Reger, M. A., Gahm, G. A., Swanson, R. D., & Duma, S. J. (2009). Association between number of deployments to Iraq and mental health screening outcomes in U.S. Army soldiers. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70, 1266-1272. doi:10.4088/JCP.08m04361
[85] Reips, U. D. (2002). Standards for internet-based experimenting. Exploratory Psychology, 49, 243-256. doi:10.1026//1618-3169.49.4.243
[86] Rolland, J. P. (1998). Qualités psychométriques de la traduction fran?aise de l’inventaire de personnalité NEO-PI-R (étude prélimi- naire). Revue Fran?aise et Francophone de Psychiatrie et de Psycho- logie Médicale, 18, 139-144.
[87] Salvador, A., & Costa, R. (2009). Coping with competition: Neuroendocrine responses and cognitive variables. Neurosciences and Biobehavioral Review, 33, 160-170. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.09.005
[88] Sapolsky, R. M. (2001). Atrophy of the hippocampus in posttraumatic stress disorder: How and when? Hippocampus, 11, 90-91. doi:10.1002/hipo.1026
[89] Secord, P. F., & Jouard, S. M: (1953). The appraisal of body-cathexis: Body-cathexis and the self. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 17, 343-347. doi:10.1037/h0060689
[90] Seeman, T. E., Singer, B. H., Rowe, J. W., Horowitz, R. I., & McEwen, B. S. (1997). Price of adaptation—Allostatic load and its health consequences: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Archives of Internal Medicine, 157, 2259-2268. doi:10.1001/archinte.1997.00440400111013
[91] Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
[92] Shapiro, S. L., & Schwartz, G. E. R. (1999). Intentional systemic mindfulness: an integrative model for self-regulation and health. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 15, 128-134.
[93] Shacham, S. (1983). A shortened version of the profile of mood states. Journal of Personality Assessment, 47, 305-306.
[94] Shils, E. A., & Janowitz, M. (1948). Cohesion and disintegration in the Wehrmacht in World War II. Public Opinion Quarterly, 12, 280-315. doi:10.1086/265951
[95] Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Francis, A. D., Nieuwenhuis, S., Davis, J. M., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PLoS Biology, 5, 1228-1235. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050138
[96] Spielberger C. D. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory: STAI (form Y). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
[97] Stewart, S. M., & Schwarzer, R. (1996). Stability of coping in Hong Kong medical students: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences, 20, 245-255. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(95)00162-X
[98] Stingl, M., Bausch, S., Walter, B., Kagerer, S, Leichsenring, F., & Leweke, F. (2008). Effects of inpatient psychotherapy on the stability of alexithymia characteristics. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 65, 173-180. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.01.010
[99] Strozzi-Heckler, R. (2003). In search of Warrior spirit: Teaching awareness disciplines to the Green Berets. Expanded Third Edition with Marine Martial Art Update. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.
[100] Taylor, G. J. (1984). Alexithymia: Concept, measurement, and implica- tions for treatment. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 725- 732.
[101] Taylor, G. J., Ryan, D., & Bagby, R. M. (1985). Toward the development of a new self-report alexithymia scale. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic, 44, 191-199. doi:10.1159/000287912
[102] Trousselard, M., Steiler, D., Raphel, C., Cian, C., Duymedjian, R., Claverie, D, & Canini, F. (2010). Validation of a French version of the freiburg mindfulness inventory—Short version: Relationships between mindfulness and stress in an adult population. Biopsychoso- cial Medicine, 4, 1-11. doi:10.1186/1751-0759-4-8
[103] Walach, H., Buchheld, N., Buttenmüller, V., Kleinknecht, N., & Schmidt, S. (2006). Measuring mindfulness—The Freiburg Mind- fulness Inventory (FMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1543-1555. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.025
[104] Waugh C. E., Fredrickson B .L., & Taylor, S. F. (2008). Adapting to life’s slings and arrows: Individual differences in resilience when recovering from an anticipated threat. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1031-1046. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2008.02.005
[105] Weinstein, N., Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). A multi-method examination of the effects of mindfulness on stress attribution, coping and, emotional well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 374-385. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2008.12.008
[106] Wilberg, T., Karterud, S., Pedersen, G., Urnes, ?., & Costa, P. T. (2009). Nineteen-Month Stability of Revised NEO Personality Inventory Domain and Facet Scores in Patients with Personality Disorders. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 197, 187-195. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181923fa0
[107] Zeidner, M. & Saklofske, D. (1996). Adaptative and maladaptative coping. In M. Zeidner, & N. S. Endler (Eds), Handbook of coping: Theory, research and application (pp. 505-531). Oxford, England: Wiley

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.