Simultaneous Detection of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Raw Salad Vegetables and Vegetarian Burger Patties

.
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.210144   PDF   HTML     5,006 Downloads   9,301 Views   Citations

Abstract

The health risks posed by Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium through the consumption of raw vegetables and vegetarian burger patties necessitates the needs for the optimization of analytical approach for their detection and enumeration in the raw vegetables, which served as potential vehicles for transmission of these pathogenic microorganisms. We sought to establish a rapid, economic and sensitive method to detect and determine the load of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium using the most probable numbers (MPN) in combination with the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR). From the naturally contaminated one hundred and seventy five samples tested (n = 175), the overall prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 28%, Salmonella Enteritidis was 20% and Salmonella Typhimurium was 14.3%, respectively. The MPN-MPCR is a quantitative method to determine the density of cell concentration of Salmonella in all the samples (Salmonella spp. ranged from <3 to 53 MPN/g; S. Enteritidis ranged from <3 to 24 MPN/g; and S. Typhimurium ranged from <3 to 15 MPN/g). The combination of the MPN-MPCR is an efficient, simple, fast analytical method for the detection and enumeration of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in vegetables and the vegetarian burger patties since it can significantly reduce time and labour with analysis completed within 2 days, as opposed to the traditional confirmation method that can take up to 5 days for unequivocal identification of species.

Share and Cite:

E. Nillian, C. Ching, P. Fung, T. Robin, U. Anyi, T. Chilek, S. Radu and M. Nishibuchi, "Simultaneous Detection of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Raw Salad Vegetables and Vegetarian Burger Patties," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 10, 2011, pp. 1077-1081. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.210144.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] R. H. Creel, “Vegetables as a Possible Factor in DisSemination of Thypoid Fever,” Journal of Public Health Reports, Vol. 27, No. 6, 1912, pp. 187-193. doi:10.2307/4567429
[2] L. C. Chai, F. M. Ghazali, F. A. Bakar, H. Y. Lee, L. R. A. Suhaimi, S. A. Talib, Y. Nakaguchi, M. Nishibuchi and S. Radu, “Occurance of Thermophilic campylobacter spp. Contamination on Vegetables Farms in Malaysia,” Journal Microbiology Biotechnology, Vol. 19, 2009, pp. 1415-1420. doi:10.4014/jmb.0901.0002
[3] Y. C. Su and C. Liu, “Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A Concern of Seafood Safety,” Food Microbiology, Vol. 24, No. 6, 2007, pp. 549-558. doi:10.1016/j.fm.2007.01.005
[4] Kaysner and Depaola, “Food Drug Administration: Bacteriological Analytical Manual,” 2004. http://www.fda.gov/Food/ScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/BacterriologicalAnlyricalManuaBAM/ucm070830.htm.
[5] A. S. Noorzaleha, R. Gulam, H. Zaiton, R. Abdul, I. Siti, N. Mitsuaki and R. Son, “Incidence of Salmonella spp., in Raw Vegetables in Selangor, Malaysia,” Journal of Food Control, Vol. 14, No. 7, 2002, pp. 475-479. doi:10.1016/S0956-7135(02)00105-6
[6] L. R. Beuchat, “Pathogenic Microorganisms Associated with Fresh Produce,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 59, No. 2, 1996, pp. 204-216.
[7] C. Soumet, G. Ermel, V. Rose, P. Drouin, G. Salva and P. Colin, “Evaluation of a Multiplex PCR Assay for Simultaneous Identification of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium from Environmental Swabs of Poultry Houses,” Letter Applied Microbiology, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1999, pp. 113-117. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00488.x
[8] D. C. Rodrigue, R. V. Tauxe and B. Rowe, “International Increase of Salmonella Enteritidis. A New Pandemic,” Epidemiology Infection, Vol. 105, No. 1, 1990, pp. 21-27. doi:10.1017/S0950268800047609
[9] F. L. Bryan, “Risk Associated with Vehicles of Foodborne Pathogens and Pathogens and Toxin,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 51, 1988, pp. 498-508.
[10] K. B. Arun, “Foodborne Microbial Pathogens: Mechanism and Pathogenesis,” India, 2008.
[11] L. L. Chia, H. C. Cheng, C. Chishih, C. H. Yhu, Y. L. Tzou and T. O. Jonathan, “A Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Rapid Identification of Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella Species, Including Salmonella Typhi,” Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2007, pp. 222-226.
[12] H. Herikstad, Y. Motarjemi and R. V. Tauxe, “Salmonella Surveillance: A Global Survey of Public Health Serotyping,” Epidemiology Infection, Vol. 129, No. 1, 2002, pp. 1-8. doi:10.1017/S0950268802006842
[13] C. L. Litter, F. C. Taylor, S. K. Sagoo, L. A. Gillespie, K. Grat and J. McLauchin, “Prevalence and Level of Listeria monocytogenes and Other Listeria Species in Prepacked Mixed Vegetbales Salad in UK,” Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 72, 2007, pp. 711-717.
[14] N. H. Bean and P. M. Griffin, “Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States, 1973-1987: Pathogen, Vehicles and Trends,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 53, No. 9, 1990, pp. 804-881.
[15] Y. B. Ngwai, C. Wambebe and Y. Adachi, “Survivability of Salmonella Typhimurium L1388 and Salmonella Enteritidis L1225 under Stressful Growth Condition,” Online Journal of Health Allied Science, Vol. 6, 2007, p. 2.
[16] G. Andrea, M. Annalisa, C. Paola and M. Rosangela, “Simulteneous Detection of Escherichia coli 0175:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes by Multiplex PCR,” Journal of Food Control, Vol. 20, No. 8, 2009, pp. 733-738. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2008.09.010
[17] A. J. Lax, P. A. Barrow, P. W. Jones and T. S. Wallis, “Current Perspectives in Salmonellosis,” British Veterinary Journal, Vol. 151, No. 4, 1995, pp. 351-377. doi:10.1016/S0007-1935(95)80126-X

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.