Transformational Leadership of Afghans and Americans: A Study of Culture, Age and Gender
Belal A. Kaifi, Bahaudin G Mujtaba
DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.31019   PDF    HTML     7,429 Downloads   13,540 Views   Citations


Afghans and Americans have been exposed to different leadership styles which may have influenced their orientation on leading others. Age, gender, and/or culture are possible factors for such differences in leadership orientations. This research surveyed the responses of 502 Americans and 300 Afghans to better understand their orientation toward transformational leadership. The Afghan respondents had significantly higher scores for transformational leadership orientation. Female American respondents had a significantly higher transformational leadership orientation than their Afghan female colleagues. Younger Afghans had a significantly higher tendency toward a transformational leadership orientation than their American counterparts. Suggestions for managers and implications for future research are presented.

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B. Kaifi and B. Mujtaba, "Transformational Leadership of Afghans and Americans: A Study of Culture, Age and Gender," Journal of Service Science and Management, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2010, pp. 150-158. doi: 10.4236/jssm.2010.31019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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