Share This Article:

Toxicity evaluation of produced formation waters after filtration treatment

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:321KB) PP. 33-40
DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.21005    5,410 Downloads   12,076 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

During the last years many authors have char-acterized the produced formation waters (PFWs) with respect to chemical compounds and toxic-ity. Most of data are related to PFWs collected on offshore platform after treatment process. The available results showed that the particulate phase had an influence on PFW toxicity. As-suming the toxicity of PFWs treated on platform, the aim of this paper is to study the toxicity of these PFWs after a further filtration treatment carried out in laboratory. For this purpose PFWs were sampled from three natural gas platforms located in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) below treat-ment system. The eco-toxicological bioassays have been conducted on test-organisms be-longing to different trophic levels such as bac-teria, algae, crustaceans and fishes. The PFWs resulted toxic according to an overall assess-ment obtained through the bioassays. Further-more, it has been possible to identify the spe-cies that were more sensitive to the tested PFWs, namely Tigriopus fulvus, Dicentrarchus labrax and Vibrio fischeri. Besides, a chemical char-acterization was reported related to the con-taminants present in the PFWs to go with eco-toxicological assessment. Barium, zinc and manganese showed the most concentrations among the metals and the lower molecular weight components were common among the organic compounds. Some differences among PFWs were observed both for toxicity and chemical composition. The highest toxicity was recorded in PFWs (PFW1 and PFW2) containing the highest concentrations of some metals (Ba, Mn and Zn) and/or BTEX.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Manfra, L. , Maggi, C. , Bianchi, J. , Mannozzi, M. , Faraponova, O. , Mariani, L. , Onorati, F. , Tornambè, A. , Lamberti, C. and Magaletti, E. (2010) Toxicity evaluation of produced formation waters after filtration treatment. Natural Science, 2, 33-40. doi: 10.4236/ns.2010.21005.

References

[1] Trefry, J.H., Naito, K.L., Trocine, R.P. and Metz, S. (1995) Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals from produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico. Water Science Technology, 32, 2, 31-36.
[2] Decree of Environmental Ministry 190 of July 28 (1994) G. U. n. 190 16/08/1994.
[3] Brendehaugh, J., Johnsen, S., Bryne, K.H., Gjose, A.L., Eide, T.H. and Aamot, E. (1992) Toxicity testing and chemical characterization of produced water: A prelimi-nary study. In: Ray, J.P. and Engelhart, F.R. Eds, Produced Water Technological/Environmental Issues and Solutions, Plenum Press, New York, 245-256.
[4] Schiff, K.C., Reish, D.J., Anderson, J.W. and Bay, S.M. (1992) A comparative evaluation of produced water tox-icity. In: Ray, J.P. and Engelhart, F.R. Eds, Produced Wa-ter Technological/Environmental Issues and Solutions, Plenum Press, New York, 199-208.
[5] Sommerville, H.J., Bennett, D., Davenport, J.N., Holt, M.S., Lynes, A. and Mahieau, A. (1987) Environmental effect of produced water from North Sea oil operations. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 18, 549-558.
[6] Stephenson, M.T. (1992) A survey of produced water studies. In: Reed, M. and Johnsen, S. Eds. Produced Water 2 Environmental Issues and Mitigation Technologies, Ple-num Press, New York, 1-11.
[7] Stromgren, T., Sorstrom, S.E., Schou, L., Kaarstad, I., Aunaas, T. and Brakstad, O.G. (1995) Acute toxic effects of produced water in relation to chemical composition and dispersion. Marine Environmental Research, 40, 147-169.
[8] Utvik, T.I.R. (1999) Chemical characterization of produced water from four offshore oil production platforms in the North Sea. Chemosphere, 39, 15, 2593-2606.
[9] Scott, K.A., Yeats, P., Wohlgeschaffen, G., Dalziel, J., Niven, S. and Lee, K. (2007) Precipitation of heavy metals in produced water: Influence on contaminant transport and toxicity. Marine Environmental Research, 63, 146-167.
[10] Cicero, A.M., Di Mento, R., Gabellini, M., Maggi, C., Trabucco, B., Astorri, M. and Ferraro, M. (2003) Monitor-ing of environmental impact resulting from offshore oil and gas installations in the Adriatic Sea: Preliminary evaluations. Annali di Chimica, 93, 701-705.
[11] Maggi, C., Trabucco, B., Mannozzi, M., Di Mento, R., Gabellino, M., Manfra, L., Nonnis, O., Virno Lamberti, C. and Cicero, A.M. (2007) A methodological approach to study the environmental impact of oil and gas offshore platforms. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Médit., 38.
[12] Mariani, L., Manfra, L., Maggi, C., Savorelli, F., Di Mento, R. and Cicero, A.M. (2004) Produced formation waters: A preliminary study on chemical characterization and acute toxicity by using fish larve Dicentrarcus labrax L., 1758. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 13, 1427-1432.
[13] Faraponova, O., Onorati, F., Magaletti, E. and Virno Lam-berti, C. (2007a) Sensitivity of Tigriopus fulvus (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) towards diethilene glycol (DEG) and pro-duced formation water (PFW). International Meiofauna Conference-Recife, Brazil, 89.
[14] Manfra, L., Moltedo, G., Virno Lamberti, C., Maggi, C., Finora, M.G., Gabellino, M., Giuliani, S., Onorati, F., Di Mento, R. and Cicero A.M. (2007) Metal content and tox-icity of produced formation water (PFW): Study of the possible effects of the discharge on marine environment. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 53, 183-190.
[15] Manfra, L., De Nicola, E., Maggi, C., Zambianchi, E., Caramello, D., Toscano, A., Cianelli, D. and Cicero, A.M. Submitted Exposure of rotifers, crustaceans and sea ur-chins to produced formation water and seawaters collected in a gas platform area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association.
[16] Prego, R., Cottè, M.H., Cobelo Garcìa, A. and Martin, J.M. (2006) Trace metals in the water column of the Vigo Ria: Offshore exchange in mid-winter conditions. Estuarine Costal and Shelf Science, 68, 289-296. Weyerhaeuser (2005) Material safety data sheet MSDS WC 379-01 Rev. 8/26/2005, 1-7.
[17] Azur Environmental (1995) Microtox? acute toxicity basic test procedures, 63.
[18] ISO (2004) Water quality: Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light emission of Vibrio fischeri (luminescent bacteria test)-Part 3: Method using freeze-dried bacteria. ISO/CD, 11348-3.
[19] ISO (2006) Water quality: Marine algal growth inhibition test with Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tri-cornutum. Reference number ISO 10253:2006, 12.
[20] IRSA (1978) Metodologia di saggio algale per lo studio di acque marine. Quaderni dell'Istituto di Ricerca sulle Acque, IRSA-CNR, Milano, 39.
[21] APAT-IRSA-CNR (2003) Metodo 8060. Metodo di valu-tazione della tossicità acuta con Artemia sp. In: APAT- IRSA-CNR, Metodi analitici per le acque, Manuali e Linee Guida 29/2003, Volume Terzo, 1043-1049.
[22] ISO/FDIS (1998) Water quality: Determination of acute lethal toxicity to marine copepods (Copepoda, Crustacea). ISO/FDIS, 16, 14669.
[23] Faraponova, O., De Pascale, D., Onorati, F. and Finoia, M.G. (2005) Tigriopus fulvus (Copepoda, Harpacticoda) as a target species in biological assays. Meiofauna Marina, 14, 91-95.
[24] Faraponova, O., Virno Lamberti, C. and Onorati, F. (2007b) Study intensification of Tigriopus fulvus (Copepoda, Har-pacticoida) as a target species in bioassays. International Meiofauna Conference-ecife, Brazil, 90.
[25] EPA (1993) Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwaters and marine organisms. EPA/600/4-90/027F, Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, 71-91.
[26] OECD (1992) Guideline for testing of chemicals n° 203. Fish, Acute Toxicity Test, 1-9.
[27] EPA (1998) Mercury in solids and solutions by thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry Method 7473. Environmental Protec-tion Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio.
[28] EPA (1996) Volatile organic compounds by gas chroma-tography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) Method 8260B (Revision 2). Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio.
[29] Cappiello, A., Famiglini, G., Mangani, F. and Palma, P. (2001) New trends in the application of electron ionization to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry interfacing. Mass Spectrom. Rev., 20, 88-104.
[30] Cappiello, A., Famiglini, G., Mangani, F. and Palma, P. (2002) A simple approach for coupling liquid chromatog-raphy and electron ionization mass spectrometry. J. Am. Soc. Mass. Spectrom., 13, 265-273.
[31] Cappiello, A., Famiglini, G. and Palma, P. (2003) Elec-tron ionization for LC/MS. Analytical Chemistry, 75, 497A-503A.
[32] Cappiello, A., Famiglini, G., Palma, P., Pierini, E., Trufelli, H., Maggi, C., Manfra, L. and Mannozzi, M. (2007) Ap-plication of nano-FIA-Direct-EI-MS to determine diethyl-ene glycol in produced formation water discharges and seawater samples. Chemosphere, 69, 554-560.
[33] Neff, J.M., Sauer, T.C. and Maciolek, N. (1992) Composi-tion, fate and effects of produced water discharges to nearshore marine waters. In: Ray J.P. and Engelhart F.R. Eds, Produced Water Technological/Environmental Issues and Solutions, Plenum Press, New York, 371-385.
[34] Sorensen, J.A., Gallagher, J.R., Hawthorne, S.B. and Au-lich, T.R. (2000) Gas Industry Groundwater Research Program, Final Report for U.S. Department of Energy Na-tional Energy Technology Laboratory Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40321; Energy & Envi-ronmental Research Center Publication 2004-EERC- 07-01, Grand Forks, ND.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.