Research on the Training Model of Applied Art Professionals in Local Universities

DOI: 10.4236/jss.2020.811015   PDF   HTML   XML   14 Downloads   60 Views  

Abstract

The application-oriented art professional talent training model of local universities closely focuses on the talent training goals of the school, deepens the professional teaching reform, implements and perfects the talent training model of “practical platform & curriculum module”. Under the background of application-oriented talent cultivation, set up compound courses with regional culture, construct a scientific and reasonable evaluation system, take part in professional competitions, explore a model, and application, highlight characteristics, and adapt to local college art talent training models.

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Wang, B. (2020) Research on the Training Model of Applied Art Professionals in Local Universities. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 8, 149-158. doi: 10.4236/jss.2020.811015.

1. Introduction

The talent training model refers to the implementation of a scientific management system and a diversified evaluation method by formulating a corresponding curriculum system under the guidance of specific educational theories and educational thoughts, in accordance with the comprehensive elements of talent training goals and the needs of society for talents. The training of talents in colleges and universities mainly includes: the setting of talent goals; the talent training system and system; the implementation process of talent training; the construction of the talent evaluation system. The talent training model is a dynamic development process, in which the goal of talent training is put first. It focuses on the issues of “what kind of people to train” and “how to train people”, constructs a suitable training system and system, and implements it into a specific training process. It mainly cultivates students’ exploration spirit and craftsmanship, and finally cultivates talents. Zhou Yuanqing, Deputy Minister of Education: “The talent training model is actually the training goals and specifications of talents and the means or methods to achieve these training goals.” ( Zhou, 1998). Zhong Binglin believes: “The talent training model is the knowledge and ability that the school builds for students. And quality structure, and the way to achieve this structure.” ( Zhong , 1999).

Minister of Education Yuan Guiren mentioned at the 4th Sino-foreign University Presidents Forum on May 2, 2010. “To improve the degree of conformity between the training of talents in universities and the needs of our country.” (Yuan, 2013).

2. The Basis for the Reform of the Training Model of Art Professionals in Local Universities

At present, there are factors such as the single characteristic of teaching mode and lack of construction; weak teachers and insufficient practical courses; and irrational talent training incentive mechanism. According to the “National Medium and Long-term Educational Reform and Development Plan (2010-2020)”, in contrast to the “National Standards for the Quality of Undergraduate Professional Teaching in Ordinary Colleges and Universities”, the “Implementation Measures for Normal University Professional Certification (Interim)”, and “Engineering Education Accreditation Standards” and the principles and opinions of the school’s talent training program; local colleges and universities art professional talent training grasp the reform mode of “teaching” and “learning” in China’s college art education, update the educational concept, and rely on the national central finance to support local college construction projects, university experiment center, school-enterprise-school-local cooperation, production-education integration center, local museum education and excellent government resource platform, aiming at social supply and demand, solving student employment as the goal, and strengthening the construction of basic teaching facilities. Optimize curriculum teaching, investigate and research educational practice bases and absorb excellent cases of talent training among relevant universities, actively implement the combination of theoretical teaching and practical teaching, comprehensively improving the quality of talents, strengthening aesthetic education to achieve innovation, entrepreneurship and excellence, and enhancing students’ comprehensive ability in aesthetics and humanistic quality.

3. “Practice Platform + Course Module” Characteristic Talent Training Model

The application-oriented talent training model for art majors in local colleges and universities adopts the structure of “practical platform + course module” (as shown in Figure 1): the “practical platform” is composed of two sections, internal and external, and is based on the common development of students and subject characteristics. It is an organic combination of general education courses

Figure 1. “Practice platform + course module” talent training model example diagram.

and professional courses, which can realize the training of different professional talents through “curriculum modules” to meet the individual development of talents and the industrial structure needs of the local economy. Adhere to the education of people, keep up with the needs of the industry, make full use of shared teaching resources, build a platform for students and society to build together, and examine students’ comprehensive ethics, intelligence, and physical literacy; pursue a broad-based training with a solid foundation, emphasis on practice, and strong ability; Live, new, and special as the teaching goal, integrate the teaching ideas of production, study and research, promote project-based teaching, build a new evaluation mechanism, and improve the curriculum system.

3.1. “Practice Platform” Education Model

3.1.1. Practice Training Center Model

Local colleges and universities specializing in fine arts are based on the experimental center of the college: woodworking training room, clothing and apparel training room, knitting and embroidery training room, graphic design training room, sculpture training room, ceramic art training room, hard material training room. Relying on characteristic studios such as the environmental art training room, it actively introduces corporate mechanisms, creates production and business entities, conducts regular professional construction and curriculum development seminars, promotes practice “teaching” and “learning” from both vertical and horizontal aspects, and borrows laboratory resources. In response to the development of the global cultural and creative industry, introduce regional red culture and intangible cultural heritage development and construction into courses, realize a systematic teaching model from conception to design to production to complete works, breaking the traditional single classroom teaching and teaching, and strengthening students. The practical application and actual combat ability in the field of cultural creativity provide students with practical conditions for learning. So as to enable students to transform the basic theory—practical cognition—special ability practice—practical application into the accumulation of experience in innovation and entrepreneurship project declaration, project establishment and service to the society, and implement open practice platform courses based on students’ actual conditions. Different expansion projects are required to set up, the teaching content is flexible and diverse, and the practical teaching links are integrated and optimized to serve teaching.

3.1.2. School-Enterprise Cooperation Model

1) “School-Enterprise + Project” Talent Training

Local art colleges and universities actively sign project-based practical teaching and company-based operation production, teaching and research practice innovation training models with practical internship companies. Schools and companies jointly set curriculum content, practical training requirements and skill evaluation standards to combine theoretical knowledge with practical projects and improve the school-enterprise talents co-construction training base, and implement the “embedded” talent training model. In the “school-enterprise + project” approach, we will explore the “project-oriented + school-enterprise cooperation” practical teaching project module, implement the development strategy of “integration of industry and education, school-enterprise cooperation”, and coordinate education and education. Based on the combination of students’ creations and actual teaching work, we adopt teaching methods that integrate diversity and creativity to cultivate students’ comprehensive ability of control and know ability, highlight their advantages, and open up a sustainable development model of “mutual benefit”. To achieve practical feedback teaching, review teaching, implement teaching reform in curriculum construction, optimize teaching structure, increase the breadth and depth of curriculum content, break through the indoctrination cognitive model, and build teaching of “teaching to promote learning” and “teaching to promote research” model, broaden their horizons, and promote the virtuous circle of students’ basic learning transformation to innovative and creative ability.

2) Tutorial System Studio Teaching Mode

Local colleges and universities of fine arts highlight the characteristics of practical training, use the teachers’ studios inside and outside the school as the teaching carrier, form a tutorial system project, and establish a teaching team achievement incubation base. Create a tutor studio system to promote the sharing of teaching resources inside and outside the school and between school and enterprise, strengthen the construction of the teaching staff, optimize the structure of the teaching staff, and enrich the teaching content. In teaching, the tutor constructs targeted projects and virtual projects, strengthens the curriculum concept of chemistry and application, stimulates healthy competition among studio tutors, students, and achievements, and transforms the teacher-student relationship into a master-student in the context of teaching and learning Relationship, promote the close integration of traditional teaching and social practice, and promote the cultivation of applied talents.

3.1.3. Education Practice Base Model

1) “Local Education Resources” Talent Training

Local colleges and art academies fully link local government resources, and local education and training institutions; educational practice bases jointly build application practice compound courses, provide practical practice platforms, and broaden innovative and entrepreneurial employment channels. Stimulate the development of students’ self-awareness, self-evaluation, and strengthen social cognition, which is conducive to cultivating students’ innovative ability in educational practice courses in a multi-level, omni-directional and systematic manner, cultivating students’ ability to apply and transforming theoretical guidance and practice, and promoting teaching models Reform to improve the effectiveness of personnel training.

2) “Collection Education” Talent Training

Art galleries and museum education is a systematic project involving six functions: academic, collection, exhibition, education, and communication. It is a diversified complex with teaching resources under the higher education system, which reflects the aesthetic education culture of colleges and universities, cultivates students’ artistic literacy, demonstrates the teaching level, and serves as an important window for public art education in urban society. Local colleges and universities of fine arts need to strengthen the signing of library-school cooperation agreements with local art galleries, folk museums, local historical and cultural museums and other collections, impart knowledge and skills to students through a shared platform, develop and disseminate art culture, and establish a regional school-enterprise joint training talent base.

As a space for lifelong art education, collection education is the main window for aesthetic education learning. Local colleges and universities need to further strengthen cooperation with provincial and municipal key cultural projects and sign joint education agreements with them such as aesthetic education practice bases, teaching practice bases, and art creation bases. From the aspects of knowledge, abilities and accomplishments, students will be cultivated in their artistic creation potential, deepened and extended the theoretical system of art history, art criticism and appreciation, and cultivated local art elementary education teachers with innovative consciousness and good professional qualities.

3.2. “Course Module” Construction Model

The construction of art professional courses in local colleges and universities closely revolves around diversified concepts, curriculum structure integration, curriculum integration, curriculum structure balance and other issues, and people-oriented subjective exploration of art professional curriculum structure changes. Taking the trend of local college art education into the relevant path of “curriculum ideological and political” (as shown in Figure 2): taking general core courses, professional basic courses, professional core courses, applied practice courses, and compound training course modules as the criteria, combined with local outstanding talent training characteristics. Construct a “basic + professional model” form; transform from a “professional and curriculum relationship model” to a “curricular combination professional model”, strengthen the theoretical guidance of courses and teaching experiments, improve talent training programs, and open transcendence, uniqueness, and contingency courses. Design and build a comprehensive campus culture and education atmosphere. Strive to create “Golden Courses” such as “National Double First-Class Courses” and “Course Ideological and Political” to ensure the quality of professional construction and serve the locality.

3.2.1. Humanities Course Group

Humanities literacy courses are the basis of the entire undergraduate education, that is, a series of general core courses such as science and technology, traditional culture, public art, public sports, and innovation and entrepreneurship network information offered by the school. It mainly cultivates students’ ideological and cultural, scientific literacy and physical and mental qualities, and lays the necessary foundation for students’ university study and lifelong learning and development. Humanities courses take into account the individual differences of

Figure 2. Example diagram of “course module”.

students, and promote the construction: strengthen the curriculum decision-making among the curriculum system, the curriculum and professional relationship model, and the curriculum implementation management system. There are elective and compulsory courses, that is, to ensure that students can fully explore various subjects, while studying the integration of humanities general courses and professional courses, improving the quality of general courses, setting appropriate course goals, planning course construction, strengthening supervision and improving construction development, and so on. Pay attention to the depth of courses and the frontiers of science, break through the limits of colleges and departments, encourage and guide students to choose courses reasonably, improve students’ comprehensive ability to use knowledge to solve problems, and promote the development of students’ personality.

3.2.2. Professional Ontology Course Group

Professional ontology courses include professional basic courses and professional core courses. Basic courses are the basic courses of the subject and major of the major. The core courses are professional structured courses based on the core theories, knowledge and skills in the professional field: such as theoretical research courses, case appreciation courses, technical skills training courses, and art practice courses. Curriculum implementation adopts the method of exhibition to promote teaching: the implementation of the “progressive project-driven” mode of integration of production and education: the combination of student-created works and realistic teaching work is the condition to meet the needs of the front line of modern teaching. Local universities must establish a linkage mechanism with enterprises in terms of training, employment, research and development, in order to truly achieve comprehensive and diversified deep integration.

The integration of industry and education refers to the school setting up majors based on the needs of the industry, relying on the professional service industry, forming a close integration of industry and majors, interdependence, mutual promotion, and a seamless school model (Liu, 2018). The key to the integration of production and education lies in the rational use of resources. Through the needs of school-enterprise cooperative research and development, on the one hand, teachers have strengthened their scientific research and practical ability, realized teachers’ knowledge renewal and skills enhancement, promoted the construction of teachers, and improved the training of skilled talents. On the other hand, students choose through school-enterprise and school-local cooperation projects. Technical experts and high-skilled talents in the enterprise directly participate in teaching, teaching and research, and enrich the classroom. Based on the project-based results, the knowledge and practice are connected and integrated into the teacher’s scientific research team to realize the transformation and sublimation of enterprise projects, optimize the school-enterprise environment and the concept of teaching reform, and realize the transformation of student achievements to the market. Give full play to the role of “exhibition” as a guiding platform. With the help of exhibitions (one lesson, one exhibition, teacher and student work exhibition, various art exhibitions at provincial, municipal and national levels), students are encouraged to use practical works to test the effectiveness of learning and improve the integration of graduation and employment. Stimulate the development of students’ comprehensive abilities such as self-knowledge, self-judgment, and strengthening of social cognition.

3.2.3. Specialized Course Group

According to the needs of the times and local resources, the local academy of fine arts pays attention to regional characteristic culture, student cultural and creative thinking, campus and industry development and university courses, and establishes local fine arts culture, fine arts cultural creativity and derivatives, off-campus fine arts education, art museums, etc. Practical teaching is carried out in modules such as library school education courses. It mainly cultivates students’ practical application ability, opens students’ creative thinking, and promotes students’ entrepreneurship. Local colleges and universities encourage art academies to actively introduce the company’s on-campus resources, to truly realize “building corporate offices in schools and setting classrooms in enterprises”, promote the reform of teaching models, improve the effectiveness of talent training, and realize a new model of production, education, research, school and enterprise talent training the organic combination.

Curriculum implementation adopts the method of promoting learning by exhibition: implementing “regional culture” innovation and entrepreneurship project-based practical teaching and corporate operations. With the deepening of the rural revitalization strategy, the real theme cases of the project are used as teaching materials, and the cross-discipline, cross-professional boundaries, and isomorphism emphasize knowledge transformation. The teaching team teaches students in accordance with their aptitude, gives full play to the initiative of creative thinking, makes full use of “Internet+”, responds to the national “Youth Red Dream Building Journey” and other innovative and entrepreneurial practice projects, fully mobilizes students’ enthusiasm, and enhances students’ practical ability. Based on this research, unify the solid foundation and practice, improve the curriculum integration construction mechanism, build a cascading and systematic curriculum education system; establish a normal university mechanism, optimize professional curriculum practice links, and cultivate the application of innovation, entrepreneurship and excellence in terms of knowledge, ability and quality type and compound talents. It lays the foundation for the project implementation and career planning of students’ innovation and entrepreneurship, and at the same time provides new thinking and forward-looking guidance for the improvement and innovation of art education in local universities.

4. Construction of Evaluation System of Art Talents Training Mode

The talent evaluation system of local universities plays an important role in the talent training model, and its common features and functions determine the talent training model of universities. Local colleges and universities’ fine arts departments have transformed from “classroom teaching” to “all-round learning”, focusing on normal teaching of “practical activities”, through teaching to promote learning, exhibition to promote teaching, teaching to promote research, cultural quality competition, and social practice competition training Students’ innovative consciousness and practical ability. In order to meet the demand for art professionals in today’s society, and to make the training of applied talents truly extend from classroom teaching to systematic extracurricular education, with more openness, flexibility and extensiveness, the principle of feasibility development of teaching quality should first be improved and objective. Highlight the characteristic evaluation index, adopt the evaluation form of “student as the main body and teacher as the leading”, focus on the implementation of the whole teaching process, and enhance the effectiveness and operability of evaluation.

Local colleges and universities of art academies focus on the improvement of overall ability and quality, establish a comprehensive evaluation mechanism to realize students’ creative potential and personality, and construct a proactive, open-ended approach in terms of evaluation scope, evaluation methods, evaluation objectives, and evaluation basis. In the scope of evaluation, the focus is shifted from result evaluation to developmental and process evaluation, and the entire classroom, extracurricular, practice, group cooperation and other process forms are included in the evaluation scope to promote students’ active learning and research ability to explore new knowledge. The evaluation method has been expanded from a single test to practical operation, homework display, final essay, work defense demonstration, collective evaluation of teaching and research section, etc. to assess students’ scientific, cultural, and psychological qualities. The purpose of the evaluation is to focus on the evaluation feedback of teaching, improve the quality of teaching and talents, change the concept of teaching evaluation, and give full play to the education function of Lide Shuren. The basis of evaluation focuses on the comprehensive ability of students’ innovative thinking and practical operation. Further conduct new assessments corresponding to market employment, and formulate a practical and diverse comprehensive evaluation mechanism. Continuously arouse students’ enthusiasm for learning, shorten the distance between students and real life, expand service content, innovate service forms, and better serve the talent training model needed for local development.

5. Conclusion

There is no fixed model for running schools in local colleges and universities, but the reform and innovation of the talent training model always adhere to the orientation of “student-oriented, teacher-led, environmental education, and social cooperation”, and “practice platform + curriculum module”, “project-oriented” cooperative teaching innovation. In the current situation, implement the “people-oriented” sustainable development education concept, truly practice back-feeding teaching, review teaching, implement teaching reforms in curriculum construction, optimize teaching structure resources, emphasize solid foundation, breakthrough characteristics, and practice-oriented school-enterprise cooperation training of talents to build courses. Laying a foundation for promoting the construction of high-level applied universities with distinctive characteristics and outstanding advantages has a very important practical and guiding significance for local economic development.

Fund Project

Sichuan University of Arts and Science General Project “Promoting Construction by Exhibition, Promoting Teaching by Exhibition, Promoting Learning by Exhibition—Research on the Training Model of Professional Talents with Applied Art Characteristics” (2020JY071) Interim results.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

References

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