The Status of Teachers’ Professional Development and Code of Ethics: The Case of Madda Walabu University—Ethiopia

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106367   PDF   HTML   XML   19 Downloads   48 Views  

Abstract

The purpose of the study is to investigate the status of teachers’ professional development and code of ethics in Madda Walabu University. The study is guided by positivism and constructivism. Mixed method (both quantitative and qualitative) is employed in the study. The researcher has collected questionnaire randomly from 196 of the university teachers (176 males and 20 females). To substantiate the study in-depth interview was collected from 8 purposely selected academic leaders. Moreover document analysis was made by interpreting semester, annual and strategic plan. The result of the study indicated, the majority of the teachers luck professional skills of teaching and pedagogy. The majority replied that they are not attributed to attractive salary and other monetary incentives. There is loose bond between the teachers and the students. Some teachers reflect unpleasant emotion, anger and frustration towards the students. Most are not concerned with the issues of student discipline and far from sharing responsibility and risk taking. The professional competence of teachers has to be improved by providing capacity building. The university should draft strategy so that teachers develop positive and ethical relation towards the students.

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Mohammed, A. (2020) The Status of Teachers’ Professional Development and Code of Ethics: The Case of Madda Walabu University—Ethiopia. Open Access Library Journal, 7, 1-19. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1106367.

1. Introduction

Teachers are identified as the most important for determining students’ achievement and learning. Updating teacher’s knowledge and skills through professional development is one of the factors for effective quality of education [1] [2]. According to [3] teacher development programs should not be of a one-size-fits-all nature, but rather the design and content of the program must take into account the context in which the program is to take. On the other hand [4] states, teacher education must adopt a bottom-up approach where the starting point is an internal view, arising from the teachers themselves, rather than the external. According to him top-down approach would leave the teachers feeling that they have no real personal investment in the program and that makes the teachers should be less committed.

Well planned and continual personal initiated professional development yields more effective professional learning than one-shot workshops and conferences. If teachers are whole heatedly intrinsically initiated the development activities could be enhanced. Teacher’s self-initiated professional development enhances teachers’ self-reflection whereby teachers control their professional experiences and teachers should be engaged in problem solving activities [5]. Moreover [6] argues supporting academic staff in the area of new and improved ways of teaching and to deepen their understanding of how students learn is a challenge for educational developers. According to him, educational developers should rely more to facilitate the intellectual and professional growth of teachers.

Teaching is a profession that is a mother of all occupations. A teacher is like a potter who delicately shapes our impressionable minds and molds it into a vessel. Teacher’s personalities should include the satisfaction of helping others, gathering and sharing information, pertinent command over written and oral communication skills, team skills and positive attitude to bring valuable change in the society. Teaching profession has always been one of the most respected in the world. A real teacher should possess professional pedagogical skills and innovative technologies.

Similar to this notion [7] argues, teaching is not just about teaching something, it is about teaching someone. Teaching is thoughtful, considerate and kindly, not just technical and cognitive. Lecturers in higher education have the potential to enhance the quality of education by bringing updating the curriculum and inspiring students to curiosity and self-directed learning. Further he pointed out some of the key principles that are pertinent to teaching in higher education like the following:

・ Provide opportunities for professional dialogue

・ Acknowledging the complexity of learning and teaching

・ Seeking improvements in the classroom

・ Promoting collaboration among the university communities

・ Creating an environment of trust and mutual respect

・ Developing a culture of inquiry

・ A realistic understanding of how external realities affect the university contexts

The concept of professional development of teacher covers a broader aspect than the career development or the staff development aspect. When looking at professional development one must examine the content of the experiences, the process by which the professional development will occur, and the context in which it will take place [8].

Conceptualization of teachers’ knowledge provides the base of teacher education curriculum. A teacher should possess subject content knowledge and general pedagogical knowledge. Teachers share a significant responsibility in preparing young people to lead successful and productive lives.

The study by [9] in Payamenoon, the University of Iran, the teaching component of professional ethics has high correlation with the students’ academic progress. In this study the opinion from the students outshine that professors have prior preparedness for teaching, have the necessary mastery to present the subjects, are timely and organized in educational and classroom matters and allocate sufficient time for resolution of student’s class problems and can create educational motivation in students.

[10] argues that, due to their influential role in their surrounding environment, teachers are required to be equipped with ethical science and behavior, and be familiar with ethical principles. Teachers with professional ethics will make attempts to enhance such factors as physical, mental, intellectual, social responsibility, commitment, modesty, honesty, creativity, accuracy, bravery, love and respect, being thoughtful and tolerance, behaving just and equal, generosity and flexibility among students.

The study by [11] [12] the following problems of teacher education were clearly observed in the program of B.Ed Degree in Indra Prasta University―India:

・ Poor quality of teacher education leads to unsatisfactory quality of learning in schools.

・ Ethical deterioration in education system is rapidly spreading corruption.

・ Privatization of educational institution is also taken as another cause for declining ethical values in education.

・ The political interference is largely responsible for misuse of human resource management in education. Political parties often use many teachers as their party workers and the teachers also participate willingly in politics.

・ Teachers should also avoid letting unrelated factors or personal biases which affect their grading of student assessments.

・ Although teachers are role models of students respected personality, simultaneously there are also teachers that are mostly absent from classes providing negative role models for students.

・ Unpleasant emotions, anger, frustration and hate between the teachers and the students.

・ Innovative teaching partially may get resistance.

・ Updating of self may get resistance.

・ Low respect in the community.

・ Less link and bond between the teachers and the parents.

According to [13] the professional ethics of teachers in the university should include overall student development, content competence, confidentiality and respect for colleagues. Never the less, valid assessment of the students and respect for institutions are the other attributes that should be taken into account.

The Ministry of Education of Ethiopia has launched a program called Teacher Education System Overhaul (TESO). The program was designed in such a way to solve the program that is associated with the teaching learning process in the university and teacher education colleges. The emphasis of the program content was to develop the culture of active learning and problem solving approach in the universities. The package program was divided into further program implementation. To substantiate the program Higher Diploma Program (HDP) was drafted that can help the teachers in the university to cope up with student centered approach. Accordingly, successful completion of the one year Higher-Diploma Program training was designed for receiving a teacher license without which no one can join or stay in the teaching profession [14]. The program was used to be practiced in the Ethiopian universities for nearly 10 - 15 years according to the difference of their establishments. The New generation universities adopted and launched the program earlier not more 10 years including Madda Walabu University. However, according to the study by [15] the program couldn’t be successful because of various reasons. The majority of the teachers couldn’t bring change and continued to teach the traditional method of teaching. The clear short comings observed includes, mainly prefer to teach by the lecture method, large class size, lack of instructional materials and miss-match between the course content and time allotted.

In Ethiopia the government has drafted and designed continuous professional Development (CPD) program in order to improve the quality of the teacher education. The program was drafted to improve the performance of the teaching learning of the country. It was a career-long process of improving knowledge, skills and attitudes centered on the local context and classroom practice. The aim was to improve the performance of teachers in the classroom. It focused on subject knowledge, pedagogy and improving classroom practice. It is updating and upgrading in which every teacher can participate.

This program was encountered with so many challenges such as level of teacher’s professional development of teachers, lack of facilities and luck of profound organization that includes materials and budget [16]. [17] has listed some of the challenges encountered like the following:

・ Cluster resources not well organized

・ Failure to synchronize the career structure and the CPD values and activities

・ Time constraint for the teachers and the program leader to effectively implement the program

・ Luck of coordination between the concerned stake holders and institutions

・ Luck of resources and expertise

To the knowledge of the researcher, in the Ethiopian universities including Madda Walabu University there are various complaints about the teaching profession and the code of ethics. It is not uncommon to come across luck of motivation and problems of moral obligation on the part of most of the teachers. There is loose bond between the teachers and the surrounding community. Not implementing innovative teaching and improper methodology is clearly observed. Students are left without being given classwork and projects. Teachers mostly absent themselves from school duties; luck of discipline was seen on the part of students and teachers not giving the proper ethical conduct relation. Moreover the researcher has not come across a study that is not directly connected with the issues of teacher’s professionalism and code of conducts in Madda Walabu University. Even the researcher has not come across in-depth oriented study that is clearly and directly connected with the issues of teachers’ professionalism and code of ethics in Ethiopian universities. Because of this and other, the researcher is convinced to study the status of teacher’s professionalism and code of ethics in Madda Walabu University. The main purpose of this study is to explore the status of teachers’ professionalism and code of ethics in Madda Walabu University. Based on this the following specific research questions are entertained:

・ To what extent does Madda Walabu University practice the essence of teacher’s professional development?

・ What are the challenges of code of ethics in Madda Walabu University?

・ What are the main reasons for the luck of motivation and commitment on the part of the teachers?

・ What are the strategic solutions to alleviate the problem?

2. Research Design and Methods

The study employed mixed methods (both quantitative and qualitative). The mixed method refers to an emergent methodology of research that advances the systematic integration [18]. According to them, research design is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting and analyzing measures of the variables specified in the problem research.

The methodological approach of this study is phenomenology which is the description of phenomenon as it presents itself awareness. This study is guided by positivism and constructivism. Positivism is the view that all true knowledge is persuaded by scientific method and constructivism claims that meaning does not exist in its own, rather adjusted by human beings as they instruct and engage in interpretivism. Descriptive research was used as a quantitative whereas phenomenology as qualitative.

In this study closed ended questionnaire was used as a quantitative instrument to collect information from the teachers in the university. According to [19] close ended questions limit respondents’ answers to the survey. The participants are allowed to choose from pre-existing set of dichotomy answers such as Yes/No, True/False, Agree/Disagree. The most common of the ranking scale questions is called the Likert scale. Closed questions and its question types are critical for collecting survey responses within a limited frame of option close ended questions are the foundation of all statistical analysis. When considering the content of questionnaire, the most important consideration is whether the content of the questions will elicit the kinds of questions necessary to answer initial research questions:

・ The type of answers we would like to get from respondents

・ To avoid superfluous/not relevant questions

・ Enough prior information/context for the set of questions

・ Bing relevant, standardized to the sample

・ To put oneself in the place of respondents shoes

In this respect the content of the closed questionnaire in this study mainly stress, pedagogical knowledge and skills, higher degree of teachers professionalism, how to build student discipline, to exercise code of ethics in the university community, the university teachers towards building the students with good moral character and future lives, academic openness, trust, integrity and honesty of teachers towards the students.

Basic principles of designing good questionnaire should meet the research objectives, prevalence of accurate information, organization of the flow, simple, short and precise, logically ordered and drafted with simple language [20]. The researcher has collected questionnaire from 196 of the university teachers (Males 176 and Females 20) and this is based on the five item Likert scale. In this study the target population is 595 to which the researcher wishes to generalize the study. However, the accessible population 385 is used as a subset of the target population in which the researcher has a reasonable access. To determine the sample size, the following statistical Formula [21] is used in line with the context of this study

n = N 1 + N e 2

n = Sample Size

N = Population Size (385)

e = Margin Error e = 0.05 based on the research condition

n = 385 1 + 385 × 0.05 2

n = 385 1 + 0.9625

n = 385 1.9625

n = 196

A Likert scale is an individual statement or question which asks an individual statement or question which asks a person to indicate the extent to which they agree by choosing one of several ranked options. Likert scale usually offers participants a choice between 5 and 7 ranked options, with the middle option being neutral. Likert scale can help respondents to understand easily and respond for a larger study [22] [23]. Accordingly the questionnaires were gathered from 196 respondents. Besides, in-depth interview was used to collect information from 8 academic personnel (colleges and departments). Document analysis was entertained by interpreting different documents within the university.

2.1. Target Population and Sample of the Study

In statistics a population is an entire group about which some information is required to be ascertained. In descriptive study it is customary to sort out a study population and then make observations on a sample taken from it [24]. A sample is any part of the fully defined population. The sample has to be representative. A representative sample is one in which each and every member of the population has an equal and mutually exclusive chance of being selected [25].

In Madda Walabu University which is one of the universities in Ethiopia there are 9 colleges out of which 6 colleges were taken randomly as an accessible population. The 6 colleges were, Medical Health College, Natural Science and Computational, Engineering, Business and Economics, Social Science and Educational and Behavioral Science. In this study the target population is 595 to which the researcher wishes to generalize the study. However, the accessible population 385 is used as a subset of the target population in which the researcher has a reasonable access. To substantiate the study semi-structured interview was made to collect information from the purposely selected 8 academic leaders. In line with this [26] stated, time and resources may not allow conducting a large number of semi-structured interview, then it is important to get the perspective of more than just a few people such as key leaders and board members. The interview can allow the respondents to freely explain their own view with freed to provide reliable and comparable data [27]. Moreover document were checked by interpreting mission statements, semester and annual reports, strategic plan and other teacher related information in the university. According to [28] document analysis is a form of qualitative research in which documents are interpreted by the researcher to give voice and meaning around an assessment topic.

2.2. Date Gathering Instruments

Pilot study was made with 9 lecturers. This can assist the researcher in determining the flows of limitation and weaknesses. The researcher has used Cronbach Alpha to check the stability and consistency of the reliability. The sample questions were administered to those teachers that are found out of the sampled colleges. To validate the instrument the researcher submitted the question to the concerned teacher education experts. Based on this, pilot analysis of items total correlation below 0.25 and above 0.8 were discarded.

2.3. Methods of Data Analysis

The researcher analyzed the data using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Quantitative data was done by using SPSS Version 20 to calculate percentage, mean, standard deviation, chi square and t-test. Qualitative data were organized by using in-depth interview and document analysis. The result from the qualitative data was processed by using thematic analysis.

3. Results and Discussion

This is devoted to the presentation analysis and interpretation of the results. The analysis is based to sort out the extent to which the teachers reacted to the status of professional development.

3.1. The Status of Teachers Professional Development in Madda Walabu University

DD = Definitely disagree = 1 DS = Disagree somewhat = 2 UD = Undecided = 3 AS = Agree somewhat = 4 DA = Definitely agree = 5.

In this study 1 and 2 are taken as (disagree) and 4 and 5 are taken as (agree).

The overall result of x2 is greater than critical value (1, 0.05) which is 3.84, the pre-determined alpha level of significance is (0.05) and degree of freedom (df) is 1.

Total respondents are 196 (Male 176 and Female 20).

Table 1 depicts the teachers’ response to the topic under study. The table shows, the overall Pearson chi-square 100.362 is by far greater than the critical value (1, 0.05) which is 3.84. This indicates that there is less practice of teachers’ professional development in Madda Walabu University. Side by side the overall average P. value .00375 is less than the conventionally accepted significance differences level of 0.05 (0.05 p < 0.05). This indicates there is statistically significance difference between the age differences of the teachers and the status of teachers’ profession in the university. Officially the chi-square statistic used in the test of independence is labeled Pearson chi-square. The statics can be evaluated by comparing the actual value against a critical value found in a chi-square distribution.

It can be seen from Table 1 item No 1 the Pearson chi-square 146.78 which is by far greater than the critical value (1, 0.05) = 3.84. Table 1 item No. 1 depicts that the majority (84.50%) of the teachers having an age from 20 - 30 agree somewhat or definitely agree that the university teachers have adopted the skills of teacher education. For the same item the majority (100%) teachers having an age from 41 - 50 and 51 and above definitely disagree or disagree somewhat with the idea that the teachers have adapted the status of teacher education.

Table 1. Chi square test for professional development.

For this item the result from the interview and document analysis supports the idea of those teachers with the age from 41 - 50 and 51 and above. Most of the teachers in the university don’t have the skills of teacher education.

Table 1 item No 2 depicts that the majorities (84.50%, 90.10% and 100%) of the f teachers definitely disagree or disagree somewhat with the idea that the university teachers are attributed to attractive salary and financial incentives. Most of them confirm that the salary and the monetary incentives are not attractive. As it is shown in Table 1 item No 3 the majority (89.10) of the teachers agree somewhat or definitely agree with the idea that there is strong bond and link between the university teachers and the students. For the same item (91.70%, 100%) of teachers having the age 41 - 50 and 51 and above confirmed there is no strong link or bond between the teachers and the students. As it is shown in Table 1 item No 4 the majority 50% of the teachers with the age 20 - 30 definitely disagree or disagree somewhat that the university teachers with high academic qualification demonstrate higher degree of teacher’s professionalism. On the other hand (33% 0%) 0f the teachers of the age 51 and above confirm the idea that higher degree of teaching professionalism is reflected both for the senior and the new teachers.

The Pearson chi-square for Table 1 item No 5 130.36 is by far greater than the critical value (1, 0.05) = 3.84. The result from the teachers outshine that the university teachers are less skilled and less motivated towards supporting the students in the university. Table 1 item No 6 depicts that the majority (80.90%) of teachers replied that the university teachers are cultivated with deep knowledge of education and innovative teaching skills. However (83.30% and 66.70%) of the teachers having the age from 41 - 50 and 51 and above reject this idea by responding that most of the teachers are not cultivated with deep knowledge of teaching and innovative skills. The result from the qualitative data is in line with the idea that most of the teachers luck higher professional teaching skills.

The Pearson chi-square for Table 1 item No 7 is 140.62 which is by far greater than the critical value (1.0.05) = 3.84, indicating that there is less feedback and support of teachers towards the students. Similarly in Table 1 item No 8 the majority (100%) of the teachers age 41 - 50 and 51 and above replied there is less follow up of the department leaders in the university towards supporting the teachers to professionally update their knowledge and skills. The result of the interview from the 8 academic leaders clearly outshine that most of the teachers are not adopted with the proper training skills and the bond between the teachers and the students is not satisfactory. The document analysis from semester, annual reports and the strategic plan outshine that there is less practice of teacher education that call for high attention and technical attribute.

3.2. Sample t-Test for Teachers Professional Development

The sample t-test is the best choice for assessing whether the measure of central tendency and the mean is different from a hypostasized value. Accordingly, in this study the teachers t-test was used in real life to compare the means. The t-test was employed to determine whether there are significant differences between the different ages of the respondents and the status of teacher’s professional development.

As it can be seen from Table 2 the result of the sample t-test teachers revealed that the grand mean score of teachers (1.852) is significantly lower than the expected mean value (2) at t = −4.103, df = 195, p < 0.05.

The content of the t-test reveals that there is less practice of teachers professional development in Madda Walabu University. Most of the teachers are not

Table 2. Sample t-test.

<2 = Disagree, 2 = Undecided, >2 = Agree.

adopted with the required teaching professional skills and pedagogical knowledge. Moreover the result clearly depicts, there is no strong bond between the university teachers and the students.

3.3. Teachers Code of Ethics in Madda Walabu University

DD = Definitely disagree = 1 DS = Disagree somewhat = 2 UD = Undecided = 3 AS = Agree somewhat = 4 DA = Definitely agree = 5.

In this study 1 and 2 are taken as (disagree) and 4 and 5 are taken as (agree).

Most of the items are greater than X2 critical value (1, 0.05) which is 3.84, the pre-determined alpha level of significance (0.05) and degree of freedom (df) is 1.

The total for male respondents is 196 (Male 176 and Female 20).

From Table 3 one can see the overall Pearson chi-square 124.304 is by far greater than the critical value (1, 0.05) = 3.84 that indicates there is less practice of the implementation of code of ethics in Madda Walabu University. Although teachers must be role models for their students, side by side there are also some teachers that are mostly absent from classes providing negative role models for

Table 3. Chi square test for teachers code of ethics.

the students. Some teachers are also reflecting unpleasant emotions, anger, frustrations towards their students. The overall p. value 0.002 is less than the conventionally accepted significance level of 0.05 which is (p < 0.05) elucidating there is association between the age of the respondents and the implementation of code of ethics. For Table 3 item No 1 the Pearson chi-square 164.6536 is by far greater than the critical value (1, 0.05) = 3.84. The majority (88.20%) of teachers from age 20 - 30 replied that most of the teachers are concerned with the students discipline. On the other hand the majority (100% and 66.7%) of teachers from age 41 - 50 and 51 and above responded that most of the university teachers are not highly concerned with the discipline of the students. The result of the interview from the academic leaders is in line with the idea that the most of the university academic leaders are not concerned with the discipline of the students. Table 3 Item No 2 depicts there is opinion difference between the different age groups. The item indicates the majority (100%) of teachers from the age 41 - 50 and 51 and above have replied that there is less concern of the university teachers towards building the students with good moral character and future lives. Similarly Table 3 item No 3 depicts the majority (100%) of the teachers age 41 - 51 and 51 and above replied that there is less concern of the teachers towards the community and the students. From Table 3 item No 4, the descriptive result of the majority (80.90%) of teachers from the age 20 - 30 either agree somewhat or definitely agree that most of the university teachers are ready for academic openness, trust, integrity and honesty. For the same item the majorities (91.50, 66.70%, and 66.70%) of the teachers from age 31 - 40, 41 - 50 and 51 and above definitely disagree or disagree somewhat with the idea that teachers are ready for academic openness and integrity.

As shown in Table 3 No 5 the answers from the teachers are controversial. The majority (80.90%) of teachers from the age 20 - 30 replied that the university teachers are acquainted with pedagogy skills. However 33.3% of the teachers age 41 - 50 and 51 and above replied that most of the teachers luck pedagogical skills. However the result from the interview confirmed that most of the teachers luck skills of teaching methods and pedagogy. Table 3 item No 6 reveals that the Pearson chi-square 141.867 is greater than the critical value (1, 0.05) = 3.84. The item indicates most of the teachers luck responsibility and risk taking towards the students. From Table 3 item No 7 the majority (100%) of teachers age 41 - 50 and 51 and above responded that, teachers don’t observe the classes of other teachers and no experience exchange among them. Similarly Table 3 item No 8 reveals that the majority (81.70%, 100%, 100%) of the teachers age 31 - 40, 41 - 50 and 51 and above confirmed that, minimum concern is given by the university for understanding students behavior and class room organization. The data achieved from the interview indicates that less concern is given for the systematic implementation of code of ethics and most teachers don’t give higher concern for the discipline of the students. No adequate strategy towards building students moral character and future lives. The data further reveals, there is no strong bond between the students, the teachers and the community.

3.4. The Result of t-Test for Teachers’ Code of Ethics

The t-test assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other. This analysis is appropriate whenever you want to compare the means of two groups and especially appropriate as the analysis for the post-test only two groups randomized experimental design. The t-value will be positive if the first mean is larger than the second and negative if it is smaller. Once you complete the t-value you have to look it up in a table of significance to test whether the ratio is large enough to say that the difference between the groups is not likely to have a chance of finding [29].

Table 4 depicts that, the overall average of the mean square of teachers 1.973 is significantly lower than the expected mean value (2) at t = −0.68, df = 195, p < 0.05. The result of the content of the table reveals that most of the teachers in the university are less concerned with student discipline. The teachers are not endowed with necessary trust to prepare students with good moral character and total lives. The result reveals adequate concern is not given by the university towards implementing code of ethics. Some teachers reflect unpleasant emotions and frustration towards the students and less concern is given towards building students moral character and future lives.

3.5. Discussion

The purpose of this study is to investigate the status of Teachers Professional Development and Code of Ethics in Madda Walabu University. Academic leaders in the university should select teachers with particular sensitivity. They should select teachers with having special scientific, ethical and personal characteristics. This approach coincides with the study by [30] that teachers must possess good qualities and be free from unethical behaviors. Teachers need to

Table 4. The result of t-test for teachers code of ethics.

<2 = Disagree, 2 = Undecided, >2 = Agree.

establish strong relationships with the learners and give them comprehensive recognition in order to educate and purify them.

In Madda Walabu University most of the teachers luck professional skills of teaching and pedagogy. The teachers should strive for better teacher education skills. In line with this, the study by [31] states qualified and prospective teachers are patient and loving against their students, not make any discrimination among students and being a role model for them. The majority of the teachers confirmed that they are not attributed to attractive salary and various financial incentives. There is loose bond between the teachers and the students, failure of implementing the teaching activity at classroom level, luck of adequate skill to implement student centered methodology, large class size, shortage of instructional materials and miss match between the course content and the time allotted were the critical challenges observed in the teaching learning of the university.

The majority of the teachers reflected less concern towards building the students good moral character and future lives. Most of the teachers are not ready for academic openness and integrity. The teachers should give respect and moral to the students. In line with this the study by [32] states that universities should focus on the issues such as respect for colleagues, avoid ethnic, racial and demographic discrimination towards the students. Attention should be given that students can build moral, scientific and professional capabilities. Moreover the study reveals that some teachers reflect unpleasant emotion, anger and frustrations towards the students. Most of the teachers are not concerned with building the student discipline. The majority are far from sharing responsibility and risk taking. The result of the data reveals, the university is with poor infrastructure and scarcity of resources.

4. Conclusion

In the university the majority of the teachers luck the skills of teacher education and not adequately cultivated with deep knowledge of pedagogy. The teachers are not involved with motivating and supporting their students. Most complaints are not attributed to attractive salary and other monetary incentives. Some teachers are regularly absent from the classes. In general, the university has not given the necessary concern to develop teachers’ code of ethics. Poor infrastructure and scarcity of resources are few of the many challenges.

5. Recommendation

On the basis of the foregoing findings from the empirical study, the following recommendations are forwarded:

・ The professional competence of the teachers has to be improved in order to upgrade the quality of the teaching learning.

・ The professional competence of the teachers has to be improved by providing capacity building and upgrading the quality of the teaching learning.

・ The curriculum for teacher education should be molded in a way so that it focuses on core classroom and pedagogy skills.

・ Ethical rules should be developed by the universities and that the teachers and the students should be informed about the importance and implementation. Members of the university academic community such as faculties, colleges, teachers and students have responsibility to abide by external rules and principles regarding academic freedom, intellectual integrity and fair and respectful treatment of others. The faculties, colleges, departments, teachers and students in the university should be guided by ethical rules and principles that address their professional responsibility. The code aims to build and maintain high professional and ethical standards among members of the university community, strengthen loyalty, ensure the transparency and social responsibility of the university activities. Teachers, students and others demonstrate their loyalty to the university by respecting the basic principles of implementing and maintaining its fundamental values. According to [33] guiding principles and rules of ethics mainly stress, come to the highest level of integrity and equity; to actively seek support when concerned about the ethical issue and to pursue professional opportunities to acquire new ethical knowledge and practices.

・ The university should organize training of code of ethics that the teachers should pay attention to the better buildings of the students’ moral character.

・ The university should develop strategies so that teachers develop positive ethical relation towards the students. Ethical values and principles in code of ethics must have both cognitive and emotive elements. They must appeal to reason as well as the environmental content of loyalty or professionalism. Codes are most often associated with normative values and empirical elements are just as critical to making codes viable. Institutions with code responsibility need the right tools to ensure they have an impact. Those tools can come in the form of laws, authorities and strategies [34].

・ Without effective assessment strategies it is very difficult to maintain the long term continuity of ethics codes. The importance of taking into account the ethical dimension of academic life in universities is of paramount importance. Ethical codes, ethical comities, ethical audits, ethical education of staff, technique to create an academic culture to the moral nature should be designed and established. Establishing certain standards, strategies and principles in ethics education may benefit all ethics program.

・ The university should fulfill the required infrastructure and facilities so that problems of large class size and materials could be solved.

Acknowledgments

Above all I would like to thank Allah (God), the Sovereign, the Great for the guidance in the work of this article. I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave their time and assistance to the completion of this article.

Limitation of the Study

Limitation of the study are constraints on generalizability, application to practice and/ or utility of findings that are the result of the ways in which you initially chose to design the study or the method used to establish internal and external validity or the result of unanticipated challenges that emerged during the study [32]. The following limitations are expected in this study:

• Since the study is confined to one university, the researcher assumes that it lucks comprehensiveness.

• Luck of recent references, reliable data and size of sample are taken to be limiting factor.

• Other concerned bodies in Ministry of Education and the community are not included in this study. This may limit the study.

Suggestion for Further Research

- The study could be replicated using larger sample and other additional data samples.

- Those un-answered questions would become the more focus with the further research.

- It is advisable and important if the study covers all the Ethiopian Universities. Teaching profession is an area of study that calls for further research, investigation and scholarly outlook.

Conflicts of Interest

I here declare “The status of teachers professional development and code of ethics in Madda Walabu University” is my original work and that all the sources that I used have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references. The author is with full responsibility that could be raised and conflict of interest of ownership, ethical and financial issues.

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