Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology

Volume 9, Issue 4 (April 2018)

ISSN Print: 2156-8456   ISSN Online: 2156-8502

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Citric Acid Production Potential of Aspergillus niger Using Chrysophyllum albidum Peel

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DOI: 10.4236/abb.2018.94013    511 Downloads   1,265 Views   Citations


The production of citric acid using Chrysophyllum albidum an indigenous under-utilized fruit waste peel and genetically characterized strains of Aspergillus niger was carried out. The Chrysophyllum albidum peel was dried, sieved to remove dirt, dry milled and the powder used as substrate for citric acid production. Thirteen fungal isolates were obtained from soil samples and decayed agricultural waste by spread plate technique and screened for citric acid producing capabilities on Czapek dox agar. Citric acid producing capability of the isolates revealed a wide yellow zone around the inoculated colonies. Two (F1 and F3) out of the thirteen isolates exhibited positive reactions and were identified based on their cultural, morphological and molecular characteristics. The fungal species were identified using PCR as Aspergillus niger DTO: 133-E8 and Aspergillus niger DTO: 131-H5. Their cultural/growth optimal conditions were determined through Solid State Fermentation of the substrate using two species of the test organism. The effects of fermentation period examined revealed, Aspergillus niger DTO: 133-E8 which produced the highest amount of citric acid 15.7 ± 0.08 g/l, lower reducing sugar and final pH of 2.1 and 121.5 ± 0.31 g/l respectively after 192 h of growth at 30°C. Aspergillus niger DTO: 131-H5 showed highest amount of citric acid 10.2 ± 0.22 g/l, lower reducing sugar and final pH of 2.4 and 128.5 ± 0.15 g/l respectively after 192 h of growth at 30°C. Maximum concentration of citric acid ranging between 16.3 ± 0.30 g/l and 12.6 ± 0.11 g/l with reducing sugar 125.4 ± 0.11 g/l and 127.2 ± 0.03 g/l was achieved at an initial pH of 5.5. Methanol was used to stimulate citric acid production (0% - 3% (v/v)) and was found to be effective at 2% (v/v) level with 21.2 ± 0.20 g/l of citric acid produced with residual sucrose concentration of 129.5 ± 0.44 g/l. The effect of trace element on citric acid production showed that Cu2+ and Fe2+ stimulated citric acid production; while other ions reduced citric acid production. There was a statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between the citric acid produced with the various parameters investigated in this research. From the study, it has been found that Chrysophlum albidum is suitable for the cultivation of Aspergillus niger and has great potential for citric acid production and could be exploited to promote certain industrial applications of underutilized fruits in Nigeria. This can be an application of waste to wealth as well as a way of minimizing agro-based environmental pollution for a cleaner environment.

Cite this paper

Dienye, B. , Ahaotu, I. , Agwa, O. and Odu, N. (2018) Citric Acid Production Potential of Aspergillus niger Using Chrysophyllum albidum Peel. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 9, 190-203. doi: 10.4236/abb.2018.94013.

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