Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery

Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2018)

ISSN Print: 2163-0569   ISSN Online: 2163-0585

Google-based Impact Factor: 0.36  Citations  

Neuropathological Changes in Hydrocephalus—A Comprehensive Review

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DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2018.81001    1,009 Downloads   2,970 Views  Citations


Hydrocephalus is a heterogeneous, neurological condition characterized by altered flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that can occur at any age. Neuropathological changes associated with hydrocephalus are dependent on the age of onset, rate of ventricular enlargement, and the etiology. Hydrocephalic brain damage is also influenced by contributions from both mechanical forces and metabolic changes, which increases the heterogeneity of the condition. However, as ventriculomegaly progresses, the surrounding brain tissue is compressed within the cranial vault, elevating intracranial pressure and eventually leading to severe brain damage. From this perspective, it makes sense that periventricular brain regions are the initial sites of damage as ventricular dilatation occurs. The following review of neuropathological changes in hydrocephalus will first discuss cellular and region specific damage from the ventricles and outward towards the cortex and brainstem. This will be followed by vascular and hypoxic changes associated with the condition. Both types of brain impairments are dependent on the severity of the condition, and they will be described accordingly.

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Di Curzio, D. (2018) Neuropathological Changes in Hydrocephalus—A Comprehensive Review. Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery, 8, 1-29. doi: 10.4236/ojmn.2018.81001.

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