Journal of Environmental Protection

Volume 7, Issue 2 (February 2016)

ISSN Print: 2152-2197   ISSN Online: 2152-2219

Google-based Impact Factor: 1.35  Citations  h5-index & Ranking

The State of Sea Systems and Practices in East and Southern Africa

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DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.72025    3,659 Downloads   4,452 Views  Citations


This paper develops a comparative overview of SEA in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa regarding legal, institutional and procedural perspectives, in order to assess their effectiveness and unveil main constrains. It is clear from this brief review that SEA is a tool of environmental governance that is of growing importance in East and Southern Africa. With regards to the institutional and legal framework, both Kenya and Tanzania have formal provisions for SEA, but no specific legislation. The main constrains on SEA effectiveness are related to the lack of a clear mandate and institutional framework, guidelines for procedures and public participation. As this analysis and case studies from the three countries examined here reveal, Kenya, Tanzania, and South Africa have expanded their use of SEA as a preventive mechanism for environmental policy and to enhance the efficiency of strategic decisions. While each of these countries has made great strides in developing the SEA process and integrating it into their decision-making processes, much work remains to be done. Ongoing refinement to the SEA process, both within this region and elsewhere in the world, will mean that this important tool integrates sustainable environmental management principles and practices into policies, plans, and programmes and the decision-making process.

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Rebelo, C. and Guerreiro, J. (2016) The State of Sea Systems and Practices in East and Southern Africa. Journal of Environmental Protection, 7, 287-302. doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.72025.

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