Open Access Library Journal

Volume 7, Issue 11 (November 2020)

ISSN Print: 2333-9705   ISSN Online: 2333-9721

Google-based Impact Factor: 0.47  Citations  

Non-Clinical Factors Associated with International Normalized Ratio Control in Patients on Warfarin Therapy: A Review Paper

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DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106947    18 Downloads   75 Views  

ABSTRACT

Warfarin is a coumarin derivative oral anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) range. Regular and accurate INR monitoring is essential for optimal anticoagulation management and to reduce the risk of adverse events. However, achieving and maintaining the therapeutic INR range are still a challenge as it is affected by several clinical and non-clinical factors. In this review paper, we analyzed how the non-clinical factors like socio-demographic, modifiable risk and protective factors affect the INR control in patients receiving warfarin therapy. We conducted an extensive literature search in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science for original articles or review papers published from 2016 to 2020. Finally, we included 20 articles in this review which fulfilled the selection criteria. Multiple factors such as female gender, ethnicity difference, lower education level, living alone, activities of daily living dependency, smoking, alcohol abuse, fasting and low body mass index along with poor access to medical facilities are associated with poor INR control. Patient self-management and weight elevation are known to be protective factors against poor INR control. Physicians managing patients on warfarin therapy are encouraged to identify and recognize these factors before prescribing warfarin to achieve and maintain the therapeutic INR.

Cite this paper

Ramasamy, T., Pillai, N.K., Yap, C.G. and Jahan, N.K. (2020) Non-Clinical Factors Associated with International Normalized Ratio Control in Patients on Warfarin Therapy: A Review Paper. Open Access Library Journal, 7, 1-21. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1106947.

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