Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering

Volume 8, Issue 8 (August 2020)

ISSN Print: 2327-6045   ISSN Online: 2327-6053

Google-based Impact Factor: 0.93  Citations  

Activated Carbons Based on Shea Nut Shells (Vitellaria paradoxa): Optimization of Preparation by Chemical Means Using Response Surface Methodology and Physicochemical Characterization

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DOI: 10.4236/msce.2020.88006    105 Downloads   328 Views  

ABSTRACT

In this study, shea residues (Vitellaria paradoxa) dumped in the wild by the units processing almonds into butter were used in the production of activated carbons. Shea nut shells harvested in the locality of Baktchoro, West Tandjile Division of Chad were used as a precursor for the preparation of activated carbons by chemical activation with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to optimize the preparation conditions, and the factors used were concentration of activating agent (1 - 5 M), carbonization temperature (400°C - 700°C) and residence time (30 - 120 min). The studies showed that at optimal conditions the yield was 51.45% and 42.35%, while the iodine number (IN) was 709.45 and 817.36 mg/g for CAK-P (phosphoric acid activated carbon) and CAK-S (sulphuric acid activated carbon) respectively. These two activated carbons (ACs) which were distinguished by their considerable iodine number, were variously characterized by elementary analysis, pH at the point of zero charge (pHpzc), bulk density, moisture content, Boehm titration, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. These analyses revealed the acidic and microporous nature of CAK-P and CAK-S carbons, which have a specific microporous surface area of 522.55 and 570.65 m2·g1 respectively.

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Amola, L. , Kamgaing, T. , Tchuifon, D. , Atemkeng, C. and Anagho, S. (2020) Activated Carbons Based on Shea Nut Shells (Vitellaria paradoxa): Optimization of Preparation by Chemical Means Using Response Surface Methodology and Physicochemical Characterization. Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 8, 53-72. doi: 10.4236/msce.2020.88006.

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