Green and Sustainable Chemistry

Volume 10, Issue 3 (August 2020)

ISSN Print: 2160-6951   ISSN Online: 2160-696X

Google-based Impact Factor: 1.27  Citations  

Cameroon Green Energy Potentials: Field Survey of Production, Physico-Chemical Analyses of Palm Kernel Oil for Industrial Applications

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DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2020.103005    202 Downloads   572 Views  


This paper reports a field survey undertaken to determine the availability of raw material for palm kernel oil commercial production for industrial applications. Both industrial and artisanal wastes from palm kernel oil production were also surveyed as raw material (palm kernel seeds) for green energy production. Results of the field study show that 22% of palm kernel seeds (which represents tons of waste) resulting from palm oil processing plants are dumped while at the artisanal level, 80% of palm kernel seed waste is dumped. Analysis of field study data shows that large amounts of waste palm kernel seeds are available to enable large scale production of palm kernel oil (PKO) for desirable industrial applications in green energy production. The paper also reports on the physical and chemical properties of Cameroon palm kernel oil (PKO). Palm kernel oil was extracted using mechanical press and solvent extraction. The palm kernel oil (PKO) from Cameroon was analyzed by standard physico-chemical methods. Results of the physical measurements show a specific gravity of PKO of 0.92 kg/L, viscosity of 26.03 cSt and at 5.93 cSt at 40°C and 100°C respectively, viscosity index of 185, pour point of 20°C, cloud point of 29°C, flash point of 200°C, aniline point of 105°F, diesel index of 23, cetane number of 27 and ASTM (American Standards for Testing and Materials) color of less than 2.5. Results of chemical analyses showed an acid value of 17.95 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid (FFA) content of 8.98 mg KOH/g, iodine value of 2.10 mg I2/g, peroxide value of 2.10 meq/kg, ester value of 123.0 mg KOH/g, hydroxyl value of 93.4 mg OH/g, saponification value of 140.95 mg KOH/g and a sulfur content of 0.016% w/v, signifying low sulfur content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed the palm kernel oil to be predominantly made up of glycerides of various fatty acids with higher proportions of C12 to C16 fatty acid residues. Cameroon PKO therefore has a broad spectrum of industrial applications by virtue of its rich physical and chemical properties.

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Bong, A. , Kor, N. and Ndifon, P. (2020) Cameroon Green Energy Potentials: Field Survey of Production, Physico-Chemical Analyses of Palm Kernel Oil for Industrial Applications. Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 10, 57-71. doi: 10.4236/gsc.2020.103005.

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