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Application of Organ-on-Chip in Drug Discovery

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DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2020.83011    32 Downloads   94 Views
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ABSTRACT

Nowadays the pharmaceutical industry is facing long and expensive drug discovery processes. Current preclinical drug evaluation strategies that utilize oversimplified cell cultures and animal models cannot satisfy the growing demand for new and effective drugs. The microengineered biomimetic system, namely organ-on-chip (OOC), simulating both the biology and physiology of human organs, has shown greater advantages than traditional models in drug efficacy and safety evaluation. The microengineered co-culture models recapitulate the complex interactions between different types of cells in vivo. Organ-on-chip system has also avoided the substantial interspecies differences in key disease pathways and disease-induced changes in gene expression profiles between human and other animal models. Biomimetic microsystems representing different organs have been integrated into a single microdevice and linked by a microfluidic circulatory system in a physiologically relevant manner. In this review, I outline the current development of organ-on-chip, and their applications in drug discovery. This human-on-chip system can model the complex, dynamic process of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and more reliably evaluate drug efficacy and toxicity. I also discuss, for the next generation of organ-on-chip, more research is required to identify suitable materials that can be used to mass produce organs-on-chips at low cost, and to scale up the system to be suitable for high-throughput analysis and commercial applications. There are more aspects that need to be further studied, thereby bring a much better tool to patients, drug developers, and clinicians.

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Zhu, J. (2020) Application of Organ-on-Chip in Drug Discovery. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 8, 119-134. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2020.83011.

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