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Clinicopathologic Analysis of Biopsied Orofacial Lesions Seen in Children in a Tertiary Health Centre in Port Harcourt: An 11-Year Review

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DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2020.83001    29 Downloads   77 Views

ABSTRACT

Background: Orofacial lesions in children and adolescents are diverse and show variation in prevalence from one region to another. Previous Nigerian studies on orofacial lesions in this age group have focused on tumours and tumour-like lesions, with the exclusion of cysts and some inflammatory/reactive lesions. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics of all biopsied orofacial lesions seen in children and adolescents aged 16 years and below. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study reviewed histopathology records over an 11-year period for histologically diagnosed lesions in patients aged 16 years and below. All such cases were extracted, and the age, gender, site and histopathologic diagnosis were recorded for each case. Lesions were categorized into three groups: inflammatory/reactive, cystic and neoplastic, with the neoplastic lesions sub-divided into benign and malignant. Patients were categorized into three age groups: 0 - 5 years, 6 - 12 years and 13 - 16 years. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 23. Results: A total of 109 biopsied lesions were seen in children ≤ 16 years during the period under review, representing 20.8% of all biopsied lesions during the same period. The patients’ age ranged from 4 months to 16 years, with a mean age of 10.4 ± 4.1 years and the lesions were encountered most frequently in the 6 - 12 years age group (45.9%). There was no gender predilection and the mandible (30.3%), maxilla (20.2%) and gingiva (22.9%) were the most frequently involved sites. Neoplastic, Inflammatory/reactive and Cystic lesions constituted 52.3%, 35.8% and 11.9% of cases respectively. The most frequent histopathologic diagnoses were pyogenic granuloma (16.5%) and unicystic ameloblastoma (12.8%). The most common inflammatory/reactive lesion was pyogenic granuloma (46.2%) and it was significantly associated with the gingiva (p = 0.000). Unicystic ameloblastoma was the most common neoplastic lesion, while dentigerous cyst was the most frequently encountered cystic lesion. Conclusion: Most orofacial lesions in children aged 16 years or below are either benign neoplasms or inflammatory/reactive lesions, with the three most common diagnoses being pyogenic granuloma, unicystic ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst. The mandible is the most commonly affected site.

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Orikpete, E. , Iyogun, C. and Omitola, O. (2020) Clinicopathologic Analysis of Biopsied Orofacial Lesions Seen in Children in a Tertiary Health Centre in Port Harcourt: An 11-Year Review. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 8, 1-8. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2020.83001.

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