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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Female Infertility

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DOI: 10.4236/ym.2020.41002    285 Downloads   692 Views


Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, associated with chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. The cause of PCOS is multi-factorial and the mechanism is still unclear. A number of complications are closely related with PCOS such as infertility, hairy and obesity. Approximately up to one-third of females with PCOs have issues with infertility. Obesity is an independent factor which exacerbates infertility in PCOS, reduces the efficacy of infertility treatment and provokes a greater risk of miscarriage. Preconception counseling and guidelines play an initial major role in infertility treatment. The option of the most appropriate treatment depends upon various factors such as age, tubal patency, quality of sperm, experience, and duration of previous treatments and the level of anxiety of the couple. Tubal patency test and semen analysis are mandatory to decide the suitable treatment. Treatment modalities have two measures—non-pharmacological and the pharmacological. Oral clomiphene citrate remains the first line treatment to trigger ovulation. Gonadotrophin and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) surgery are the other treatment option. In vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer are the third line treatment and IVF remains the first option in the patient with diagnosed and established bilateral tubal occlusion and/or concentration of recovered motile sperm less than or equal to 5 million. Here, etiology, pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms of PCOS are reviewed, and perspectives are given for further research. The recent development, treatment, and diagnosis of PCOS are also highlighted. The summary will be of guiding significance in the prevention and treatment of PCOS.

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Naqvi, S. , Bhattarai, J. , Li, H. and Wang, X. (2020) Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Female Infertility. Yangtze Medicine, 4, 11-27. doi: 10.4236/ym.2020.41002.

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