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Cardiac Markers: An Index in the Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetic Patients in Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Region, South of Nigeria

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DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2019.94015    273 Downloads   535 Views

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) are known to be at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The prevalence and incidence of DM patients with heart diseases is unknown in Yenagoa and its environ of Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The study, with the tool of cardiac markers, investigated the incidence of CVD in chronic and non-chronic DM patients and compared the prevalence in both male and female subjects with respect to the duration of illness. The study sought to evaluate the diagnostic performance of cardiac markers to evaluate the diabetic subjects and the goals of screening are to improve life expectancy and quality of life by preventing Myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure through the early detection of significant CVD. Study Design and Methods: A total of 356 type 2 DM patients were recruited for the study. They are diabetic patients that presented with symptoms of CVD. They were grouped into 135 DM patients that have suffered the Diabetes for less than 10 years, 119 for 10 - 20 years and 102 for 21 and above years. The plasma levels of the Cardiac Markers, Troponin I (CTnI), Troponin T (cTnT), Creatine Kinase (CK-MB), Myoglobin (MYO) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined in the subjects. The method of fluorescence immunoassay (FIA) was used in the measurement of CTn1, CTnT and MYO. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to determine the CK-MB and LDH. Results: Analysis of the results has shown that 14.33% of the studied subjects were diagnosed of various CVD and were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Of these, 8.15% were females and 6.18% were males. 54.90% of DM subjects diagnosed of CVD were from group 21 and above years while 29.41% were from group 10 to 20 years and 15.69% from those that had suffered it for <10 years. 26.12% of the total DM patients studied had either one or more of the cardiac markers elevated, showing the potentials of developing heart diseases. The correlation between the different age groups and the pair wise correlations between measured parameters in the DM patients with CVD showed a positive correlation. Conclusion: The tools of cardiac markers can be used in the diagnosis/assessment of CVD in type 2 DM patients. The risk of developing CVD is more in females than the male subjects that are suffering from type 2 DM and those with long duration of the illness in Yenegoa, Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Region, South of Nigeria.

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Ezeiruaku, F. (2019) Cardiac Markers: An Index in the Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetic Patients in Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Region, South of Nigeria. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 9, 153-166. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2019.94015.

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