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Evaluation of Pregnancy Outcomes among Women with Pregnancies Complicated by Diabetes Mellitus in Abakaliki, South-East, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2019.93008    155 Downloads   332 Views

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnancies complicated by diabetes are associated with significant increase in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The management of diabetes in pregnancy is a great challenge in a low resource setting because of limited resources and facilities to care for these women. Aim: To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes of diabetic pregnant women managed at Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Southeast, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This was a 7-year retrospective case-control study that compared pregnancy outcomes among women with pregnancies complicated by diabetes and those without diabetes managed at Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakalikibetween January 1st, 2012 and December 31st, 2018. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 22. Results: The incidence of diabetes in pregnancy in this study was 6.6 per 1000 deliveries. Of 126 women in diabetic arm of the study, 81 were diagnosed during pregnancy and 45 were known diabetic prior to conception. Over two-thirds of 126 women with pregnancy complicated by diabetes achieved good blood glucose control during pregnancy. Both groups differ in their mean BMI and women with diabetes in pregnancy were more likely to be obese compared with control (diabetic; 30.1 ± 2.5 versus control; 23.4 ± 2.1, P < 0.0001). Pregnant women with diabetes were more likely to be delivered by cesarean section when compared with non-diabetic women (86 versus 23, OR = 9.6, 95% CI: 5.35 - 17.32, P < 0.0001). Similarly, the incidence of polyhydramnious was higher in paturients with diabetes when compared with the control groups (26 versus 13, OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.10 - 4.63, P = 0.02). There were no differences between both study groups with regards to other maternal outcomes. The incidence of fetal macrosomia, neonatal hypoglycemia and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome were significantly higher among women whose pregnancies were complicated by diabetes when compared with the control [Diabetics; fetal macrosomia (62.7%), neonatal hypoglycemia (44.4%) and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (22.2%) versus Control; fetal macrosomia (34.1%), neonatal hypoglycemia (7.9%) and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (5.6%) respectively]. Conclusion: Women with pregnancies complicated by diabetes had a higher incidence of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Clinical recognition of diabetes in pregnancy is important because institution of therapy, and antepartum fetal surveillance can reduce the maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with the condition.

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Ifunanya, N. , Idzuinya, O. , Okwuchukwu, O. , Chibuzor, U. , Chukwu, I. , Nobert, O. and Uchenna, O. (2019) Evaluation of Pregnancy Outcomes among Women with Pregnancies Complicated by Diabetes Mellitus in Abakaliki, South-East, Nigeria. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 9, 69-76. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2019.93008.

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