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Marked Improvement in Glycemic Control with Exenatide on Addition to Metformin, Sulfonylurea and Insulin Glargine in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, a Real World Experience

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DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2018.84015    337 Downloads   634 Views

ABSTRACT

Background: The major effect of Exenatide is attributed to lowering of post-prandial glycemia, whereas insulin glargine mainly improves fasting glycemia [FPG]. Objective: Therefore, we assessed effect of Exenatide administration at 6 months and for at 1 year on glycemic control, lipids, body weight [BW], daily insulin dose and hypoglycemic events. Methods: Records of 164 subjects, 126 men and 38 women administered Exenatide between January 2011 and December 2013 are included in this report. Exenatide was initiated at 5 mcg subcutaneously twice daily [BID] in obese subjects, BMI > 30 kg/m2, with C-peptide > 1 ng/d, and HbA1c 7.5% - 9.5%, while receiving daily metformin 2000 mg, Sulfonylurea Glimepiride 8 mg and insulin Glargine [GLAR]. Exclusion criteria were creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and liver enzymes > 2.5 times upper limit of normal. Indices of glycemic control include fasting plasma glucose levels and HbA1c. Lipids include serum concentrations of total, LDL and HDL cholesterol. Other endpoints are body weight, daily insulin dose and number of hypoglycemic events per patient during 4 weeks prior to initiation of Exenatide, at 6 months and 1 year of therapy. Results: In 37 subjects, Exenatide was discontinued within 1 - 3 weeks; 29 due to onset of nausea and vomiting. Seven of these also complained of abdominal pain and in these, serum amylase and lipase were elevated indicating presence of acute pancreatitis. One subject discontinued because of chest pain. Fasting plasma Glucose remained unchanged following Exenatide administration. However, HbA1c declined significantly denoting improvement in overall glycemic control without significant changes in body weight, daily insulin dose and hypoglycemic events. Lipid panel improved as well. Conclusion: Exenatide may be an appropriate adjuvant option in obese subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus with lack of desirable glycemic control while receiving therapy with Metformin, Glimepiride, and insulin Glargine. Moreover, improvement in glycemic control is likely to be secondary to lowering of post prandial hyperglycemia induced by Exenatide.

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Esmail, S. , Banzal, S. and M. Kabadi, U. (2018) Marked Improvement in Glycemic Control with Exenatide on Addition to Metformin, Sulfonylurea and Insulin Glargine in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, a Real World Experience. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 8, 152-159. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2018.84015.

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