Differences in body components and electrical characteristics between youth soccer players and non-athletes


Many previous studies have focused on youth soccer player injuries without body component analysis compared to non-athletes. Only a few studies which have investigated body components of youth soccer players, and studies that look at electrical characteristics used by rheobase and chronaxie as well as body components are even scarcer. Therefore, we feel that there is a need for a study investigating objective clinical analysis of the body components (body structure and body composition) and electrical characteristics of both youth soccer players and non-athletes. Sixty subjects participated in our study, comprising of thirty youth soccer players and thirty non-athletes. The Inbody 520 was used to measure and analyze body composition and the Duo 500 was employed to measure electrical characteristics. It was observed that the soccer players showed markedly lower total impedance compared to the non-athletes. In both legs, it was particularly noted that there were significant differences between the right and left sides. The soccer players showed a higher skeletal muscle mass and lean/ideal lean × 100% compared to the non-athletes. Furthermore, the soccer players had a lower rheobase and higher chronaxie. A comparison of the genders showed a similar pattern. In this study, we were able to separate the differences in body components and electrical characteristics between the subject groups using a systemic approach. Future studies on diverse types of athletes would contribute further to the development of clinical physiotherapy and sports rehabilitation.

Share and Cite:

Yang, S. , Lee, W. , Kim, J. , Kim, M. and Kim, J. (2013) Differences in body components and electrical characteristics between youth soccer players and non-athletes. Health, 5, 1010-1015. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.56134.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Giza, E., et al. (2005) Injuries in women’s professional soccer. British journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 212-216. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2004.011973
[2] Fuller, C.W., et al. (2010) “Football for health”—A football-based health-promotion programme for children in South Africa: A parallel cohort study. British journal of Sports Medicine, 44, 546-554. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.072223
[3] Melissa, A., et al. (2010) Soccer injuries in female youth players: Comparison of injury surveillance by certified athletic trainers and internet. Journal of Athletic Training, 45, 238-242. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-45.3.238
[4] Giombini, A., et al. (2007) Hyperthermia induced by microwave diathermy in the management of muscle and tendon injuries. British Medical Bulletin, 83, 379-396. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldm020
[5] Kim, I.H., et al. (2012) The effect of an early lumbar exercise program on trunk strength and the Oswestry disability index after herniated nucleus pulposus surgery. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 24, 165-168. doi:10.1589/jpts.24.165
[6] Kim, J.H., et al. (2012) Change of muscular activity and dynamic stability of the knee joint due to excessive and repetitive jumping or cutting by female athletes. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 24, 715-719. doi:10.1589/jpts.24.715
[7] Lee, W.D., Lee, L.K., Kim, B. and Kim, J. (2012) Differences in body components and the significance of rehabilitation for taekwondo athletes compared to nonathletes. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 4, 203- 208. doi:10.1007/s13530-012-0137-2
[8] Kim, M.Y., Kim, J.H., Kim, B. and Kim, J. (2011) Comparison study on the daily performance capability and body fat percentage for a healthy life among elderly people using a senior welfare center. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 3, 120-128. doi:10.1007/s13530-011-0087-0
[9] Lee, W.D., et al. (2013) Differences in rheobase and chronaxie between the paretic and non-paretic sides of hemiplegic stroke patients: A pilot study. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 25, in press.
[10] Medlicott, M.S. and Harris, S.R. (2006) A systematic review of the effectiveness of exercise, manual therapy, electrotherapy, relaxation training, and biofeedback in the management of temporomandibular disorder. Physical Therapy, 86, 955-973.
[11] Kuzawa, C.W., et al. (2012) Birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and adult body composition in five low and middle income countries. American Journal of Human Biology, 24, 5-13. doi:10.1002/ajhb.21227
[12] Hallal, P.C., et al. (2012) Bidirectional cross-sectional and prospective associations between physical activity and body composition in adolescence: Birth cohort study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30, 185-192. doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.631570
[13] Dallinga, J.M., Benjaminse, A. and Lemmink, K.A. (2012) Which screening tools can predict injury to the lower extremities in team sports? A systematic review. Sports Medicine, 42, 791-815.
[14] Lees, A., et al. (2010) The biomechanics of kicking in soccer: A review. Journal of Sports Sciences. 28, 805-817. doi:10.1080/02640414.2010.481305
[15] Gallagher, D., et al. (2000) Weight stability masks sarcopenia in elderly men and women. Endocrinology and Metabolism: American Journal of Physiology, 279, E366- E375.
[16] Lee, S.Y. and Gallagher, D. (2008) Assessment methods in human body composition. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, 11, 566-572. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32830b5f23
[17] Gallagher, D. and DeLegge, M. (2011) Body composition (sarcopenia) in obese patients: Implications for care in the intensive care unit. JPEN Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 35, 21S-28S. doi:10.1177/0148607111413773
[18] Ashley, Z., et al. (2005) Determination of the chronaxie and rheobase of denervated limb muscles in conscious rabbits. Artificial Organs, 29, 212-215. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1594.2005.29037.x
[19] Rattay, F., Paredes, L.P. and Leao, R.N. (2012) Strength-duration relationship for intraversus extracellular stimulation with microelectrodes. Neuroscience, 214, 1-13. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.04.004
[20] Efimov, I.R. (2009) Chronaxie of defibrillation: A pathway toward further optimization of defibrillation waveform? Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 20, 315-317. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8167.2008.01330.x
[21] Jeon, H.J., Kim, J.H., Kim, B. and Kim, J. (2012) Analysis of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation-induced sensory threshold from the elderly people for healthy life. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 4, 167-172. doi:10.1007/s13530-012-0132-7
[22] Jeon, H.J., et al. (2012) Changing the sensory threshold of elderly people through low-frequency, high-voltage acupoint electrical stimulation. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 4, 277-283. doi:10.1007/s13530-012-0147-0

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.